## 3.3 Normality Assessment

Since Normal (Gaussian) distribution has many applications, we typically want/ wish our data or our variable is normal. Hence, we have to assess the normality based on not only Numerical Measures but also Graphical Measures

### 3.3.1 Graphical Assessment

pacman::p_load("car")
qqnorm(precip, ylab = "Precipitation [in/yr] for 70 US cities")
qqline(precip)

The straight line represents the theoretical line for normally distributed data. The dots represent real empirical data that we are checking. If all the dots fall on the straight line, we can be confident that our data follow a normal distribution. If our data wiggle and deviate from the line, we should be concerned with the normality assumption.

### 3.3.2 Summary Statistics

Sometimes it’s hard to tell whether your data follow the normal distribution by just looking at the graph. Hence, we often have to conduct statistical test to aid our decision. Common tests are

#### 3.3.2.1 Methods based on normal probability plot

##### 3.3.2.1.1 Correlation Coefficient with Normal Probability Plots

The correlation coefficient between $$y_{(i)}$$ and $$m_i^*$$ as given on the normal probability plot:

$W^*=\frac{\sum_{i=1}^{n}(y_{(i)}-\bar{y})(m_i^*-0)}{(\sum_{i=1}^{n}(y_{(i)}-\bar{y})^2\sum_{i=1}^{n}(m_i^*-0)^2)^.5}$

where $$\bar{m^*}=0$$

Pearson product moment formula for correlation:

$\hat{p}=\frac{\sum_{i-1}^{n}(y_i-\bar{y})(x_i-\bar{x})}{(\sum_{i=1}^{n}(y_{i}-\bar{y})^2\sum_{i=1}^{n}(x_i-\bar{x})^2)^.5}$

• When the correlation is 1, the plot is exactly linear and normality is assumed.
• The closer the correlation is to zero, the more confident we are to reject normality
• Inference on W* needs to be based on special tables
library("EnvStats")
gofTest(data,test="ppcc")$p.value #Probability Plot Correlation Coefficient #> [1] 0.383608 ##### 3.3.2.1.2 Shapiro-Wilk Test $W=(\frac{\sum_{i=1}^{n}a_i(y_{(i)}-\bar{y})(m_i^*-0)}{(\sum_{i=1}^{n}a_i^2(y_{(i)}-\bar{y})^2\sum_{i=1}^{n}(m_i^*-0)^2)^.5})^2$ where $$a_1,..,a_n$$ are weights computed from the covariance matrix for the order statistics. • Researchers typically use this test to assess normality. (n < 2000) Under normality, W is close to 1, just like $$W^*$$. Notice that the only difference between W and W* is the “weights”. gofTest(data,test="sw")$p.value #Shapiro-Wilk is the default.
#> [1] 0.3132036

#### 3.3.2.2 Methods based on empirical cumulative distribution function

The formula for the empirical cumulative distribution function (CDF) is:

$$F_n(t)$$ = estimate of probability that an observation $$\le$$ t = (number of observation $$\le$$ t)/n

This method requires large sample sizes. However, it can apply to distributions other than the normal (Gaussian) one.

# Empirical CDF hand-code
plot.ecdf(data,verticals = T, do.points=F)

##### 3.3.2.2.1 Anderson-Darling Test

The Anderson-Darling statistic :

$A^2=\int_{-\infty}^{\infty}(F_n(t)=F(t))^2\frac{dF(t)}{F(t)(1-F(t))}$

• a weight average of squared deviations (it weights small and large values of t more)

For the normal distribution,

$$A^2 = - (\sum_{i=1}^{n}(2i-1)(ln(p_i) +ln(1-p_{n+1-i}))/n-n$$

where $$p_i=\Phi(\frac{y_{(i)}-\bar{y}}{s})$$, the probability that a standard normal variable is less than $$\frac{y_{(i)}-\bar{y}}{s}$$

• Reject normal assumption when $$A^2$$ is too large

• Evaluate the null hypothesis that the observations are randomly selected from a normal population based on the critical value provided by and

• This test can be applied to other distributions:

• Exponential
• Logistic
• Gumbel
• Extreme-value
• Weibull: log(Weibull) = Gumbel
• Gamma
• Logistic
• Cauchy
• von Mises
• Log-normal (two-parameter)

Consult for more detailed transformation and critical values.

gofTest(data,test="ad")$p.value #Anderson-Darling #> [1] 0.1961768 ##### 3.3.2.2.2 Kolmogorov-Smirnov Test • Based on the largest absolute difference between empirical and expected cumulative distribution • Another deviation of K-S test is Kuiper’s test gofTest(data,test="ks")$p.value #Komogorov-Smirnov
#> [1] 0.6694967
##### 3.3.2.2.3 Cramer-von Mises Test
• Based on the average squared discrepancy between the empirical distribution and a given theoretical distribution. Each discrepancy is weighted equally (unlike Anderson-Darling test weights end points more heavily)
gofTest(data,test="cvm")\$p.value #Cramer-von Mises
#> [1] 0.1820569
##### 3.3.2.2.4 Jarque–Bera Test

Based on the skewness and kurtosis to test normality.

$$JB = \frac{n}{6}(S^2+(K-3)^2/4)$$ where $$S$$ is the sample skewness and $$K$$ is the sample kurtosis

$$S=\frac{\hat{\mu_3}}{\hat{\sigma}^3}=\frac{\sum_{i=1}^{n}(x_i-\bar{x})^3/n}{(\sum_{i=1}^{n}(x_i-\bar{x})^2/n)^\frac{3}{2}}$$

$$K=\frac{\hat{\mu_4}}{\hat{\sigma}^4}=\frac{\sum_{i=1}^{n}(x_i-\bar{x})^4/n}{(\sum_{i=1}^{n}(x_i-\bar{x})^2/n)^2}$$

recall $$\hat{\sigma^2}$$ is the estimate of the second central moment (variance) $$\hat{\mu_3}$$ and $$\hat{\mu_4}$$ are the estimates of third and fourth central moments.

If the data comes from a normal distribution, the JB statistic asymptotically has a chi-squared distribution with two degrees of freedom.

The null hypothesis is a joint hypothesis of the skewness being zero and the excess kurtosis being zero.

### References

Anderson, Theodore W, and Donald A Darling. 1952. “Asymptotic Theory of Certain" Goodness of Fit" Criteria Based on Stochastic Processes.” The Annals of Mathematical Statistics, 193–212.
Bera, Anil K, and Carlos M Jarque. 1981. “Efficient Tests for Normality, Homoscedasticity and Serial Independence of Regression Residuals: Monte Carlo Evidence.” Economics Letters 7 (4): 313–18.
Looney, Stephen W, and Thomas R Gulledge Jr. 1985. “Use of the Correlation Coefficient with Normal Probability Plots.” The American Statistician 39 (1): 75–79.
Marsaglia, George, and John Marsaglia. 2004. “Evaluating the Anderson-Darling Distribution.” Journal of Statistical Software 9: 1–5.
Shapiro, Samuel Sanford, and Martin B Wilk. 1965. “An Analysis of Variance Test for Normality (Complete Samples).” Biometrika 52 (3/4): 591–611.
Shapiro, Samuel S, and RS Francia. 1972. “An Approximate Analysis of Variance Test for Normality.” Journal of the American Statistical Association 67 (337): 215–16.
Stephens, Michael A. 1974. “EDF Statistics for Goodness of Fit and Some Comparisons.” Journal of the American Statistical Association 69 (347): 730–37.