33.4 Choosing Controls


By providing a causal diagram, deciding the appropriateness of controls are automated.

Guide on how to choose confounders: T. J. VanderWeele (2019)

In cases where it’s hard to determine the plausibility of controls, we might need to further analysis.

sensemakr provides such tools.


In simple cases, we can follow the simple rules of thumb provided by Steinmetz and Block (2022) (p. 614, Fig 2)


Steinmetz, Holger, and Jörn Block. 2022. “Meta-Analytic Structural Equation Modeling (MASEM): New Tricks of the Trade.” Management Review Quarterly 72 (3): 605–26.
VanderWeele, Tyler J. 2019. “Principles of Confounder Selection.” European Journal of Epidemiology 34: 211–19.