37.12 Other elements

Many research articles have other sections too:

  • References

    • Give the full citations of any work referenced, in the required format (such as APA, Harvard, etc.).
    • Organise and format references correctly: Many disciplines or journals have very strict guidelines for how references must be listed and formatted.
  • Acknowledgements: Thank people who legitimately contributed to the report, and research funding bodies. One attempt (Allen et al. 2019) has identified many different ways in which people can contribute: see, for example, https://www.elsevier.com/authors/policies-and-guidelines/credit-author-statement

  • Appendices

    • In the appendices, place important material that would break the flow of the document’s narrative.
    • Appendices may include large tables, images, detailed discussions of technical details, …
    • Sometimes, appendices may be placed online.


Allen L, O’Connell A, Kiermer V. How can we ensure visibility and diversity in research contributions? How the Contributor Role Taxonomy (CRediT) is helping the shift from authorship to contributorship. Learned Publishing. Wiley Online Library; 2019;32(1):71–4.