## 5.7 Ridge Regression

When we have the Collinearity problem, we could use the Ridge regression.

The main problem with multicollinearity is that $$\mathbf{X'X}$$ is “ill-conditioned.” The idea for ridge regression: adding a constant to the diagonal of $$\mathbf{X'X}$$ improves the conditioning

$\mathbf{X'X} + c\mathbf{I} (c>0)$ The choice of c is hard. The estimator

$\mathbf{b}^R = (\mathbf{X'X}+c\mathbf{I})^{-1}\mathbf{X'y}$ is biased.

• it has smaller variance than the OLS estimator; as c increases, the bias increases but the variance decreases.
• always exists some value of c for which the ridge regression estimator has a smaller total MSE than the OLS
• the optimal c varies with application and data set.
• to find the “optimal” c we could use “ridge trace.”

we plot the values of the p - 1 parameter estimates for different values of c, simultaneously.

• typically, as c increases toward 1 the coefficients decreases to 0.
• the values of the VIF tend to decrease rapidly as c gets bigger than 0. The VIF values begin to change slowly as c approaches 1.
• then we can examine the ridge trace and VIF values and chooses the smallest value of c where the regression coefficients first become stable in the ridge trace and the VIF values have become sufficiently small (which is very subjective).
• typically, this procedure is applied to the standardized regression model.