5.8 Optional: Percentages
(Answers are available in Sect. A.5)
Industries often produce unpleasant odours, but the effects on the health of those impacted is not always clear.
Furthermore, different communities are impacted in different ways. A study (Deane and Sanders 1978) studied the RQ:
Does the odour from nearby petroleum refineries impact residents in different areas of Carson, California, differently?
One aim of the study was to determine if the reports of unpleasant odours were related to measurements made by a dynamic olfactometer (an ‘electronic nose’). Part of the data collected are shown in Table 5.3.
|Area I||Area II||Area III||Total|
|At least once a week||48||48||16||112|
|Between once a week and once a month||23||21||10||54|
|Less often than once a month||14||14||20||48|
|Not at all||12||12||53||77|
- Explain whether the study is observational or experimental (true or quasi).
- What would be the meaning of column percentages for this table?
- What would be the meaning of row percentages for this table?
- Would row or column percentages probably be more sensible to use? Why?
- Compute the percentage of residents in the sample overall not detecting the odour at all.
Deane, Margaret, and George Sanders. 1978. “Annoyance and Health Reactions to Odor from Refineries and Other Industries in Carson, California 1972.” Environmental Research 15: 119–32.