2.1 Quick revision

We recommend trying these Quick revision questions before your tutorial.

Consider this (qualitative) RQ:

What factors are preventing the adoption of household solar technologies in Santiago [Chile]?

--- Walters et al. (2018)

  1. For this RQ, what is the Population?
  2. The study will be externally valid if:
  3. Suppose the researchers mailed surveys to all households in Santiago, and people returned the survey if they wished to. What is the best description of this sampling method?
  4. Suppose the researchers randomly selected five suburbs in Santiago; then ten streets within each of these suburbs; then ten households within each of these streets. What is the best description of this sampling method?
  5. Suppose the researchers stood outside a busy shopping centre, and surveyed every ninth person who entered. What is the best description of this sampling method?
  1. The RQ states that only households in Santiago will be studied.
  2. External validity means that the sample represents the intended population (i.e., households in Santiago).
  3. Since people only return the survey if they want to, this is self-selecting.
  4. There are multiple stages of random selection, so this is multi-stage.
  5. This is convenience sampling, since the researchers will only obtain people who are there at the time the researchers are there (at their convenience).
    Taking every ninth person does not make the sample a random (systematic) sample, but I suppose it helps make the sample more representative.


Walters JP, Kaminsky J, Huepe C. Factors influencing household solar adoption in Santiago, Chile. Journal of Construction Engineering and Management. American Society of Civil Engineers; 2018;144(6):05018004.