How this book was made

This book was made using R (R Core Team 2018), and the bookdown package (Xie 2016), based on Markdown syntax, using knitr (Xie 2015). Numerous other R packages were used, including:

  • The diagrams were made in base R, or using the diagram package (Soetaert 2017).
  • The kableExtra package was used for nicer tables (Zhu 2018).
  • Interactive online maps (e.g., Sect. 2.7.1) use the leaflet package (Cheng et al. 2018).
  • Some data tables in the online version are displayed using the DT package (Xie et al. 2018).
  • Some plots use the plotrix package (Lemon 2006).
  • The NHANES data is provided by the NHANES package (Pruim 2015).
  • Some data are from the GLMsData package (Dunn and Smyth 2017).
  • The viridis package is used for some colour specifications (Garnier 2018) to make colours easier for those with colour-blindness to distinguish colours, and for better greyscale printing.
  • The webexercises package was used to create the interactive web exercises (Barr and DeBruine 2021) (i.e., Quick Revision questions).

All of this software is free and open source. Other resources used include:

  • The online quizzes are embedded using H5P, iframes.
  • Icons are from iconmonstr, and are freely available.
  • The text folding (in the online version) was implemented by adapting advice from StackOverflow.,
  • The polling in the online book is provided by Ferendum.
  • The cover for the book was made using a free image with Canva.


Barr D, DeBruine L. Webexercises: Create interactive web exercises in ’r markdown’ (formerly ’webex’) [Internet]. 2021. Available from:
Cheng J, Karambelkar B, Xie Y. leaflet: Create interactive web maps with the JavaScript ’leaflet’ library [Internet]. 2018. Available from: = leaflet.
Dunn PK, Smyth GK. GLMsData: Generalized linear model data sets [Internet]. 2017. Available from:
Garnier S. viridis: Default color maps from ’matplotlib’ [Internet]. 2018. Available from:
Lemon J. plotrix: A package in the red light district of r. R-News. 2006;6(4):8–12.
Pruim R. NHANES: Data from the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Study [Internet]. 2015. Available from:
R Core Team. R: A language and environment for statistical computing [Internet]. Vienna, Austria: R Foundation for Statistical Computing; 2018. Available from:
Soetaert K. Diagram: Functions for visualising simple graphs (networks), plotting flow diagrams [Internet]. 2017. Available from:
Xie Y. Dynamic documents with R and knitr [Internet]. 2nd ed. Boca Raton, Florida: Chapman; Hall/CRC; 2015. Available from:
Xie Y. Bookdown: Authoring books and technical documents with R markdown [Internet]. Boca Raton, Florida: Chapman; Hall/CRC; 2016. Available from:
Xie Y, Cheng J, Tan X. DT: A wrapper of the JavaScript library ’DataTables’ [Internet]. 2018. Available from:
Zhu H. kableExtra: Construct complex table with ’kable’ and pipe syntax [Internet]. 2018. Available from: