How this book was made

This book was made using R (R Core Team 2018), and the bookdown package (Xie 2016), which is based on Markdown syntax, using knitr (Xie 2015). Numerous other R packages were used too:

  • The diagrams were made in base R, or using the diagram package (Soetaert 2017).
  • The kableExtra package was used for nicer tables (Zhu 2018).
  • The map in Sect. 2.6 (interactive in the online version) is made using the leaflet package (Cheng et al. 2018).
  • Some data tables in the online version are displayed using the DT package (Xie et al. 2018).
  • Some plots use the plotrix package (Lemon 2006).
  • The NHANES data is provided by the NHANES package (Pruim 2015).
  • Some data are from the GLMsData package (Dunn and Smyth 2017).
  • The viridis package is used for some colour specifications (Garnier 2018) to make colours easier for those with colour-blindess to distinguish colours, and for better greyscale printing.
  • The webex package was used to create the interactive web exercises (Barr and DeBruine 2021).

All of this software is free and open source.

Other resources used include:

  • The online quizzes are embedded using H5P iframes.
  • Icons are from iconmonstr and are freely available.
  • The text folding (in the online version) was implemented by adapting advice from StackOverflow.
  • The polling in the online book is provided by Ferendum.
  • The cover for the book was made using a free image with Canva.


Barr D, DeBruine L. Webexercises: Create interactive web exercises in ’r markdown’ (formerly ’webex’) [Internet]. 2021. Available from:
Cheng J, Karambelkar B, Xie Y. leaflet: Create interactive web maps with the JavaScript ’leaflet’ library [Internet]. 2018. Available from: = leaflet.
Dunn PK, Smyth GK. GLMsData: Generalized linear model data sets [Internet]. 2017. Available from:
Garnier S. viridis: Default color maps from ’matplotlib’ [Internet]. 2018. Available from:
Lemon J. plotrix: A package in the red light district of r. R-News. 2006;6(4):8–12.
Pruim R. NHANES: Data from the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Study [Internet]. 2015. Available from:
R Core Team. R: A language and environment for statistical computing [Internet]. Vienna, Austria: R Foundation for Statistical Computing; 2018. Available from:
Soetaert K. Diagram: Functions for visualising simple graphs (networks), plotting flow diagrams [Internet]. 2017. Available from:
Xie Y. Dynamic documents with R and knitr [Internet]. 2nd ed. Boca Raton, Florida: Chapman; Hall/CRC; 2015. Available from:
Xie Y. Bookdown: Authoring books and technical documents with R markdown [Internet]. Boca Raton, Florida: Chapman; Hall/CRC; 2016. Available from:
Xie Y, Cheng J, Tan X. DT: A wrapper of the JavaScript library ’DataTables’ [Internet]. 2018. Available from:
Zhu H. kableExtra: Construct complex table with ’kable’ and pipe syntax [Internet]. 2018. Available from: