2.3 Language

Patients who have suffered a stroke often have restricted limb movement, and rehabilitation therapies are looking to using robotic means to assist these patients.

Read the description (line breaks added fo clarity) of one such study as shown below (Lo et al. 2010), then complete the crossword below regarding this information.

In this multicenter, randomized, controlled trial involving 127 patients with moderate-to-severe upper-limb impairment 6 months or more after a stroke, we randomly assigned 49 patients to receive intensive robot-assisted therapy, 50 to receive intensive comparison therapy, and 28 to receive usual care.

Therapy consisted of 36 1-hour sessions over a period of 12 weeks. The primary outcome was a change in motor function, as measured on the Fugl-Meyer Assessment of Sensorimotor Recovery after Stroke, at 12 weeks...

We recruited veterans from four participating VA medical centers who were 18 years of age or older and had long-term, moderate-to-severe motor impairment of an upper limb from a stroke that had occurred at least 6 months before enrollment.

Such impairment was defined as a score of 7 to 38 on the Fugl-Meyer Assessment of Sensorimotor Recovery after Stroke, a scale with scores for upper-limb impairment ranging from 0 (no function) to 66 (normal function). All patients provided written informed consent.

Patients were randomly assigned to receive robot-assisted therapy, intensive comparison therapy, or usual care...

Trained evaluators who were unaware of study-group assignments assessed patients 6, 12, 24, and 36 weeks after randomization.  

The primary outcome was a change in the Fugl-Meyer score at 12 weeks, as compared with the baseline value...

--- Lo et al. (2010)


Lo AC, Guarino PD, Richards LG, Haselkorn JK, Wittenberg GF, Federman DG, et al. Robot-assisted therapy for long-term upper-limb impairment after stroke. The New England Journal of Medicine. 2010;362(19):1772–83.