2.3 Language

Patients who have suffered a stroke often have restricted limb movement, and rehabilitation therapies are looking to using robotic means to assist these patients.

Read the description (line breaks added for clarity) of one such study as shown below (Lo et al. 2010), then complete the crossword below regarding this information.

In this multicenter, randomized, controlled trial involving \(127\) patients with moderate-to-severe upper-limb impairment \(6\) months or more after a stroke, we randomly assigned \(49\) patients to receive intensive robot-assisted therapy, \(50\) to receive intensive comparison therapy, and \(28\) to receive usual care.

Therapy consisted of \(36\) \(1\)-hour sessions over a period of \(12\) weeks. The primary outcome was a change in motor function, as measured on the Fugl-Meyer Assessment of Sensorimotor Recovery after Stroke, at 12 weeks...

We recruited veterans from four participating VA medical centers who were \(18\) years of age or older and had long-term, moderate-to-severe motor impairment of an upper limb from a stroke that had occurred at least \(6\) months before enrollment.

Such impairment was defined as a score of \(7\) to \(38\) on the Fugl-Meyer Assessment of Sensorimotor Recovery after Stroke, a scale with scores for upper-limb impairment ranging from \(0\) (no function) to \(66\) (normal function). All patients provided written informed consent.

Patients were randomly assigned to receive robot-assisted therapy, intensive comparison therapy, or usual care...

Trained evaluators who were unaware of study-group assignments assessed patients \(6\), \(12\), \(24\), and \(36\) weeks after randomization.  

The primary outcome was a change in the Fugl-Meyer score at \(12\) weeks, as compared with the baseline value...

--- Lo et al. (2010)


Lo AC, Guarino PD, Richards LG, Haselkorn JK, Wittenberg GF, Federman DG, et al. Robot-assisted therapy for long-term upper-limb impairment after stroke. The New England Journal of Medicine. 2010;362(19):1772–83.