## 10.9Optional: Two-way tables

(Answers available in Sect. A.10)

Applying tattoos carries health risks as the skin is broken during application. An American study examined if a relationship existed between having hepatitis C and having tattoos .

To study this, 626 people were interviewed as part of an observational study, and asked about two issues: Whether they had hepatitis C (47 people) or not (579 people); and if they had a tattoo (113 people), or no tattoos (513 people).

1. Which one of these five sets of hypotheses is not valid for this situation? Why?

1. $$H_0$$: No association between having hepatitis C and having a tattoo in the population;
$$H_1$$: An association between having hepatitis C and having a tattoo in the population.
2. $$H_0$$: The odds of having hepatitis C is the same with or without a tattoo in the population;
$$H_1$$: The odds of having hepatitis C is not the same with or without a tattoo in the population.
3. $$H_0$$: The mean number of people having hepatitis C is the same for those with and without a tattoo in the population;
$$H_1$$: The mean number of people having hepatitis C is not the same for those with and without a tattoo in the population.
4. $$H_0$$: The odds ratio of having hepatitis C, comparing those with or without a tattoo, is one in the population;
$$H_1$$: The odds ratio of having hepatitis C, comparing those with or without a tattoo, is not one in the population.
5. $$H_0$$: The proportion having hepatitis C is the same with or without a tattoo in the population;
$$H_1$$: The proportion having hepatitis C is not the same with or without a tattoo in the population.
2. Compute the percentage of people overall in the sample with a tattoo.

3. Assuming the null hypothesis about the population is true, compute the number of people in the sample with hepatitis C that you would expect have a tattoo. Use the information above to answer the question.

4. In the sample, 25 people had Hep. C and a tattoo. Use this information to create the two-way table summarising the data (Table 10.3).

TABLE 10.3: Five-year mortality for artifical limb users
Had Hep. C Did not have Hep. C Total