12.8 Optional: Reading research articles

This question is optional; for example, if you need more practice, or you are studying for the exam.

(Answers available in Sect. A.12)

As with all endeavours involving humans, medical procedures can be subject to human error. One study set out to

...characterise the incidence and nature of medication errors during paediatric resuscitations

--- Kozer et al. (2004), p. 1

The Abstract from this paper is shown in Fig. 12.5. Read this Abstract, then answer the questions that follow.

The Abstract from Kozer et al. (2004)

FIGURE 12.5: The Abstract from Kozer et al. (2004)

  1. Identify the possible research question being answered, identifying (where possible) P, O, C and I.
  2. Identify the type of question is being asked: Descriptive, Relational or Interventional
  3. Explain whether the study is observational or experimental (true or quasi).
  4. List the possible limitations can you identify with this study. Then identify the limitations identified by the authors, by reading the extract in Fig. 12.6.
The limitations listed in Kozer et al. (2004)

FIGURE 12.6: The limitations listed in Kozer et al. (2004)


Kozer E, Seto W, Verjee Z, Parshuram C, Khattak S, Koren G, et al. Prospective observational study on the incidence of medication errors during simulated resuscitation in a paediatric emergency department. British Medical Journal. 2004;329:1321–5.