## 11.2 Describing data in jamovi and SPSS

In practice, quantitative research requires the use of a computer for producing graphs and completing calculations. In this book, two statistical software packages are described for analysis of data:

(For reason to avoid Excel and other spreadsheets, read this information from earlier in this book.)

This section makes only brief notes about setting up data in these software packages; consult a comprehensive reference for more (and better) details. For both packages, however, declaring the variables correctly is very important (Table 11.1).

Practically all software,
including jamovi and SPSS
record data in a spreadsheet-like grid,
with the *variables in the columns*,
and the
*units of analysis in the rows*.

Type of variable | Further classification | In jamovi | In SPSS |
---|---|---|---|

Qualitative | Nominal | Nominal | Nominal |

Ordinal | Ordinal | Ordinal | |

Quantative | Discrete | Continuous, Integer | Scale |

Continuous | Continuous, Decimal | Scale |

### 11.2.1 Using jamovi

In jamovi,
nominal variables are called *Nominal*,
and
ordinal variables are called *Ordinal*
(Table 11.1).
In jamovi,
*continuous* quantitative variables are called *continuous decimal*,
and
*discrete* quantitative variables are called (confusingly) *continuous integer*.

To add this information to jamovi, double-click on the variable name at the top of the data worksheet (Fig. 11.1), which produces Fig. 11.2. This opens an area where the data can be described:

- Nominal qualitative variables are set as
`Nominal`

, and the levels described in the`Levels`

area to the right - Ordinal qualitative variables are set as
`Ordinal`

, and the levels described in the`Levels`

area to the right. - Quantitative
*continuous*variables are set as`Continuous`

with the*Data type*as`Decimal`

. - Quantitative
*discrete*variables are set as`Continuous`

with the*Data type*as`Integer`

.

When the information has been entered, clicking the up-arrow on the top right (Fig. 11.2) closes this window.

### 11.2.2 Using SPSS

In SPSS,
variables are described in the *Variable View* window
(*not* the *Data View* window).
Each variable is then described
in the *Measure* column
(Fig. 11.3):

- Nominal qualitative variables are called
`Nominal`

. - Ordinal qualitative variables are called
`Ordinal`

. - Quantitative variables are called
`Scale`

, regardless of whether they are discrete or continuous.