## 9.6 Quick review questions

A study examined the effect of peer pressure from passengers among teenage male drivers; the aim was to

…experimentally test the effects of passenger presence and social influence […] of male adolescent novices in a simulated driving task.

, p. 126

The use of a driving simulator was justified as:

… driving simulation has been shown to be an externally valid predictor of real-world driving

, p. 125

The Discussion section of the article includes a subsection called ‘Strengths and limitations.’ Part of that sub-section reads:

participants were closely clustered around average rates of resistance to peer influence for this age group […] so it is unclear to what extent these findings would generalize to participants with weaker resistance to peer influences.

, p. 135

Later, the paper reports:

… the use of an age-peer [passenger assigned by the researchers] allowed substantial experimental control, it may have provided participants with an artificial experience compared to the influence of actual friends.

, p. 135

1. The study used $$n=52$$ 16- and 17-year-old males in the study. Should the external validity of the study be criticised for only using teenage males in the study, and not teenage females?
2. What does the second last quotation above mean?
3. True or false: The Hawthorne effect is likely to be an issue in this study.

### References

Bingham CR, Simons-Morton BG, Pradhan AK, Li K, Almani F, Falk EB, et al. Peer passenger norms and pressure: Experimental effects on simulated driving among teenage males. Transportation research part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour. Elsevier; 2016;41:124–37.