## A.5 Solutions (05)

Here are the solutions of the exercises on tibbles of Chapter 5 (Section 5.4).

#### Introduction

The following exercises require the essential tibble commands and repeat many commands from earlier chapters (involving dplyr and ggplot2).

### A.5.1 Exercise 1

#### Flower power

Turn the iris data — contained in R datasets — into a tibble and conduct an EDA on it.

Hint: iris provides the measurements (in cm) of plant parts (length and width of sepal and petal parts) for 50 flowers from each of three iris species (called setosa, versicolor, and virginica). (Evaluate ?iris to obtain a description of the dataset.)

1. Save datasets::iris as a tibble ir that contains this data and inspect it. Are there any missing values?

#### Solution

# ?iris

# 1. Turn into tibble and inspect: -----
ir <- tibble::as_tibble(datasets::iris)
dim(ir)         # 150 observations (rows) x 5 variables (columns)
#> [1] 150   5

sum(is.na(ir))  # 0 missing values
#> [1] 0
1. Compute a summary table that shows the means of the four measurement columns (Sepal.Length, Sepal.Width, Petal.Length, Petal.Width) for each of the three Species (in rows). Save the resulting table of means as a tibble im1.

#### Solution

# 2. Compute counts and means by species: -----
im1 <- ir %>%
group_by(Species) %>%
summarise(n = n(),
mn_sep.len = mean(Sepal.Length),
mn_sep.wid = mean(Sepal.Width),
mn_pet.len = mean(Petal.Length),
mn_pet.wid = mean(Petal.Width)
)

# Print im1 (as table with 4 variables of means):
knitr::kable(im1, caption = "Average iris measures (4 variables of mean values).") 
Table A.6: Average iris measures (4 variables of mean values).
Species n mn_sep.len mn_sep.wid mn_pet.len mn_pet.wid
setosa 50 5.006 3.428 1.462 0.246
versicolor 50 5.936 2.770 4.260 1.326
virginica 50 6.588 2.974 5.552 2.026
1. Create a histogram that shows the distribution of Sepal.Width values across all species.
## Graphical exploration: -----

## Distribution of 1 (continuous) variable:

# 3. Distribution of Sepal.Width across species:
ggplot(ir, aes(x = Sepal.Width)) +
geom_histogram(binwidth = .1, fill = "skyblue", color = "black") +
labs(title = "Distribution of sepal width across iris species") +
theme_bw()

1. Create a plot that shows the shape of the distribution of Sepal.Width values for each species.

#### Solution

To show the distributions/relationships between 2 variables (1 categorical, 1 continuous), we combine a violin plot with a raw data plot (using geom_jitter and transparency):

## 4. The distributions of Sepal.Width by species:
ggplot(ir, aes(x = Species, y = Sepal.Width)) +
geom_violin(fill = "grey90", linetype = 0, alpha = 2/3, width = .5) +
geom_jitter(aes(color = Species, shape = Species), size = 3, alpha = 1/2, width = .10) +
labs(title = "Distributions of sepal width by iris species") +
# scale_color_manual(values = c("forestgreen", "steelblue", "firebrick")) +
scale_color_manual(values = unikn::usecol(c(Seegruen, Seeblau, Pinky))) +
theme_bw()

An alternative solution could use density plots and different facets by Species:

ggplot(ir, aes(x = Sepal.Width, fill = Species)) +
facet_wrap(~Species) +
geom_density(alpha = 2/3) +
labs(title = "Distributions of sepal width by iris species") +
coord_fixed() +
# scale_fill_manual(values = c("forestgreen", "steelblue", "firebrick")) +
scale_fill_manual(values = unikn::usecol(c(Seegruen, Seeblau, Pinky))) +
theme_bw()

1. Create a plot that shows Petal.Width as a function of Sepal.Width separately (i.e., in three facets) for each species.

#### Solution

We typically use a scatterplot to examine the relationship between 2 continuous variables. To avoid overplotting, we use geom_jitter and add some transparency:

## 5. Petal.Width as a function of Sepal.Width by iris species:
ggplot(ir, aes(x = Sepal.Width, y = Petal.Width, color = Species, shape = Species)) +
facet_wrap(~Species) +
geom_jitter(size = 2, alpha = 2/3) +
# geom_density2d() +
coord_fixed() +
labs(title = "Petal width as a function of sepal width by iris species") +
# scale_color_manual(values = c("forestgreen", "steelblue", "firebrick")) +
scale_color_manual(values = unikn::usecol(c(Seegruen, Seeblau, Pinky))) +
theme_bw()

### A.5.2 Exercise 2

#### Rental accounting

Anna, Brian, and Caro are sharing a flat and keep a record of the items that each of them purchased for the household. At the end of each week, they use this data to balance their account. As an aspiring data scientist, you offer your help. Here’s last week’s data:

Name Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun
Anna Bread: $2.50 Pasta:$4.50 Pencils: $3.25 Milk:$4.80 Cookies: $4.40 Cake:$12.50
Butter: $2.00 Cream:$3.90
Brian Chips: $3.80 Beer:$11.80 Steak: $16.20 Toilet paper:$4.50 Wine: $8.80 Caro Fruit:$6.30 Batteries: $6.10 Newspaper:$2.90 Honey: $3.20 Detergent:$9.95
1. Which variables and which observations would you define here? Go ahead and enter the data into a tibble acc_1.

#### Solution

Rather than entering the data in the format shown in the Table above, we need to ask ourselves: Which observations are described by which variables? The fundamental unit of observation here is a purchase: Each cell of the table is a data point, that is characterized on four dimensions (variables). To describe each purchase (in a row), we need four variables (columns):

• the name of the buyer,
• the day of the purchase,
• what was bought, and
• how much was paid.

It seems most natural to enter the purchases into a table that contains each observation as a row. This can be done by using the tribble command:

## Entering data into tibble: ------

acc_1 <- tibble::tribble(
~name, ~day, ~what, ~paid,
#------|-----|-----|------|
"Anna",  "Mon", "Butter",  2.00,
"Anna",  "Tue", "Pasta",   4.50,
"Anna",  "Wed", "Pencils", 3.25,
"Anna",  "Thu", "Milk",    4.80,
"Anna",  "Sun", "Cake",   12.50,
"Anna",  "Sun", "Cream",   3.90,
"Brian", "Mon", "Chips",   3.80,
"Brian", "Tue", "Beer",   11.80,
"Brian", "Wed", "Steak",  16.20,
"Brian", "Fri", "Toilet paper", 4.50,
"Brian", "Sun", "Wine",      8.80,
"Caro",  "Mon", "Fruit",     6.30,
"Caro",  "Tue", "Batteries", 6.10,
"Caro",  "Thu", "Newspaper", 2.90,
"Caro",  "Fri", "Honey",     3.20,
"Caro",  "Sat", "Detergent", 9.95 )

knitr::kable(acc_1, caption = "Table with purchases as observations (using the tribble command).")
Table A.7: Table with purchases as observations (using the tribble command).
name day what paid
Anna Mon Butter 2.00
Anna Tue Pasta 4.50
Anna Wed Pencils 3.25
Anna Thu Milk 4.80
Anna Sun Cake 12.50
Anna Sun Cream 3.90
Brian Mon Chips 3.80
Brian Tue Beer 11.80
Brian Wed Steak 16.20
Brian Fri Toilet paper 4.50
Brian Sun Wine 8.80
Caro Mon Fruit 6.30
Caro Tue Batteries 6.10
Caro Thu Newspaper 2.90
Caro Fri Honey 3.20
Caro Sat Detergent 9.95

Alternatively, we could use the tibble command to enter the same table as four column variables (as vectors for name, day, what, and paid, each of which contains 18 elements). However, as this would require to keep track of the order of elements (i.e., which element belongs to which purchase), it is easier to enter this data row-by-row (by observations/purchases, using the tribble command).

1. Use acc_1 to answer the following questions (by using dplyr for creating tables that contain the answer):

• How much money was spent this week?
• Which percentage of the overall amount was spent by each person?
• How many items did each person purchase?
• How much did each person pay overall?
• Who buys the cheapest/most expensive items (on average)?
• How much is being spent on each day of the week (overall and on average)?
• What is the order of days sorted by the overall amount spent (from most expensive to least expensive)?

#### Solution

We first summarize the purchases by name:

total_paid <- sum(acc_1$paid) total_paid #> [1] 111.4 ## Transformations: ------ # (1) Purchases by name: buy_by_name <- acc_1 %>% group_by(name) %>% summarise(n = n(), sm_pay = sum(paid), mn_pay = sm_pay/n, pc_pay = sm_pay/total_paid * 100 ) knitr::kable(buy_by_name, caption = "Purchases by name.") Table A.8: Purchases by name. name n sm_pay mn_pay pc_pay Anna 8 37.85 4.73125 33.97666 Brian 5 45.10 9.02000 40.48474 Caro 5 28.45 5.69000 25.53860 Alternatively, we can summarize the purchases by day:  # Define the day variable as an ordered factor (to preserve its order): acc_1$day <- factor(acc_1$day, levels = c("Mon", "Tue", "Wed", "Thu", "Fri", "Sat", "Sun"), ordered = TRUE) # Purchases by day: buy_by_day <- acc_1 %>% group_by(day) %>% summarise(n = n(), sm_pay = sum(paid), mn_pay = sm_pay/n) knitr::kable(buy_by_day, caption = "Purchases by day.") Table A.9: Purchases by day. day n sm_pay mn_pay Mon 4 14.60 3.650000 Tue 3 22.40 7.466667 Wed 2 19.45 9.725000 Thu 2 7.70 3.850000 Fri 2 7.70 3.850000 Sat 2 14.35 7.175000 Sun 3 25.20 8.400000  # Arrange buy_by_day by overall expense: buy_by_day %>% arrange(desc(sm_pay)) #> # A tibble: 7 × 4 #> day n sm_pay mn_pay #> <ord> <int> <dbl> <dbl> #> 1 Sun 3 25.2 8.4 #> 2 Tue 3 22.4 7.47 #> 3 Wed 2 19.4 9.72 #> 4 Mon 4 14.6 3.65 #> 5 Sat 2 14.4 7.18 #> 6 Fri 2 7.7 3.85 #> 7 Thu 2 7.7 3.85 1. Interpret and re-create the following graphs (using ggplot2 and possibly dplyr): #### Solution ## Visualizations: ------ # (A) Bar charts: ---- ggplot(acc_1) + geom_bar(aes(x = day, fill = name)) + labs(title = "Number of purchases per person by day") + # scale_fill_brewer(palette = "Set1") + # theme_classic() scale_fill_manual(values = unikn::usecol(c(Pinky, Seeblau, Signal))) + ds4psy::theme_ds4psy()  ggplot(acc_1) + geom_bar(aes(x = day, y = paid, fill = name), stat = "identity") + labs(title = "Amount paid (overall and per person) by day") + # scale_fill_brewer(palette = "Set1") + # theme_classic() scale_fill_manual(values = unikn::usecol(c(Pinky, Seeblau, Signal))) + ds4psy::theme_ds4psy() 1. Bonus task: What do the following plots show? Try re-creating the plots from the data in acc_1. Hint: These plots are created with geom_step and geom_area. However, rather than directly calling ggplot, consider first using dplyr to transform the data of acc_1 into summary tables that contain the values needed for the plots. You may have to combine multiple group_by and mutate commands to compute all required variables. #### Solution We first compute a table that contains the cumulative sum for each person over time (i.e., per day): Table A.10: Purchases by day and name (with cum sum by name). day name n sm_pay cum_sum Mon Anna 2 4.50 4.50 Mon Brian 1 3.80 3.80 Mon Caro 1 6.30 6.30 Tue Anna 1 4.50 9.00 Tue Brian 1 11.80 15.60 Tue Caro 1 6.10 12.40 Wed Anna 1 3.25 12.25 Wed Brian 1 16.20 31.80 Thu Anna 1 4.80 17.05 Thu Caro 1 2.90 15.30 Fri Brian 1 4.50 36.30 Fri Caro 1 3.20 18.50 Sat Anna 1 4.40 21.45 Sat Caro 1 9.95 28.45 Sun Anna 2 16.40 37.85 Sun Brian 1 8.80 45.10 Plot a summary of the cumulative purchases (as a step function): Note that the tibble acc_1 does not contain rows for a person and day without a purchase. As a consequence, the summary tables (computed above) with group_by(day, name) contain fewer than 7 x 3 = 21 variables. We could fix this by adding data points with a paid value of 0 for people and days without a purchase and combining both tables into a larger table all: (Instead of using the dplyr::full_join command, we could have added the missing data points to acc_1 above.) Next, we transform all into a summary table that contains cumulative sums: Table A.11: Cumulative sums (by day and name). day name n sum_name_day cum_sum_name cum_sum_day pc_name Mon Anna 2 4.50 4.50 14.60 30.82192 Mon Brian 1 3.80 3.80 14.60 26.02740 Mon Caro 1 6.30 6.30 14.60 43.15068 Tue Anna 1 4.50 9.00 37.00 24.32432 Tue Brian 1 11.80 15.60 37.00 42.16216 Tue Caro 1 6.10 12.40 37.00 33.51351 Wed Anna 1 3.25 12.25 56.45 21.70062 Wed Brian 1 16.20 31.80 56.45 56.33304 Wed Caro 1 0.00 12.40 56.45 21.96634 Thu Anna 1 4.80 17.05 64.15 26.57833 Thu Brian 1 0.00 31.80 64.15 49.57132 Thu Caro 1 2.90 15.30 64.15 23.85035 Fri Anna 1 0.00 17.05 71.85 23.72999 Fri Brian 1 4.50 36.30 71.85 50.52192 Fri Caro 1 3.20 18.50 71.85 25.74809 Sat Anna 1 4.40 21.45 86.20 24.88399 Sat Brian 1 0.00 36.30 86.20 42.11137 Sat Caro 1 9.95 28.45 86.20 33.00464 Sun Anna 2 16.40 37.85 111.40 33.97666 Sun Brian 1 8.80 45.10 111.40 40.48474 Sun Caro 1 0.00 28.45 111.40 25.53860 The resulting table cum_sum_by_day can be visualized as follows: Note: An alternative way to represent the purchases would as a list (an R data structure that — in contrast to vectors — allows a mix of different data types): # A more natural format (to represent a purchase) would have been: buy <- list("Anna", "Mon", "Bread", 2.50) # by purchase # but as column vectors don't allow mixing data types (e.g., characters and numbers), # we represented the purchases as the rows of a table/tibble above. ### A.5.3 Exercise 3 #### Positive psychology tibbles In this exercise, we will enter some results from the Exploring data chapter (Chapter 4) as a tibble. Next, we re-compute the results from the raw data and visualize the results. To do this exercise, re-load the following data files (into R objects posPsy_wide and posPsy_long): # Load data: posPsy_wide <- ds4psy::posPsy_wide # from ds4psy package # posPsy_wide <- readr::read_csv(file = "http://rpository.com/ds4psy/data/posPsy_data_wide.csv") # online dim(posPsy_wide) # 295 294 #> [1] 295 294 # 3. Corrected DVs in long format: posPsy_long <- ds4psy::posPsy_long # from ds4psy package # posPsy_long <- readr::read_csv(file = "http://rpository.com/ds4psy/data/posPsy_AHI_CESD_corrected.csv") # online dim(posPsy_long) # 990 x 50 #> [1] 990 50 See Section B.1 of Appendix B for details on the data. The following table shows the mean depression scores per intervention for each of the 5 occasions (with means rounded to one decimal): Table A.12: Mean depression scores by intervention and occasion. intervention mn_cesd_0 mn_cesd_1 mn_cesd_2 mn_cesd_3 mn_cesd_4 mn_cesd_5 1 15.1 15.3 13.6 12.0 11.2 13.5 2 16.2 14.6 11.4 12.5 13.4 14.6 3 16.1 12.3 14.8 13.9 14.9 13.0 4 12.8 9.9 9.5 9.1 7.7 10.2 In case this table is too wide to be displayed in full, here is how it looks in the Console: #> # A tibble: 4 × 7 #> intervention mn_cesd_0 mn_cesd_1 mn_cesd_2 mn_cesd_3 mn_cesd_4 mn_cesd_5 #> <int> <dbl> <dbl> <dbl> <dbl> <dbl> <dbl> #> 1 1 15.1 15.3 13.6 12 11.2 13.5 #> 2 2 16.2 14.6 11.4 12.5 13.4 14.6 #> 3 3 16.1 12.3 14.8 13.9 14.9 13 #> 4 4 12.8 9.9 9.5 9.1 7.7 10.2 1. Enter this data directly into a tibble my_tbl (by using either the tibble or the tribble command). #### Solution # (1a): Create the tibble displayed above. my_tbl <- tibble(intervention = c(1:4), mn_cesd_0 = c(15.1, 16.2, 16.1, 12.8), mn_cesd_1 = c(15.3, 14.6, 12.3, 9.9), mn_cesd_2 = c(13.6, 11.4, 14.8, 9.5), mn_cesd_3 = c(12.0, 12.5, 13.9, 9.1), mn_cesd_4 = c(11.2, 13.4, 14.9, 7.7), mn_cesd_5 = c(13.5, 14.6, 13.0, 10.2) ) # Check resulting tibble: my_tbl #> # A tibble: 4 × 7 #> intervention mn_cesd_0 mn_cesd_1 mn_cesd_2 mn_cesd_3 mn_cesd_4 mn_cesd_5 #> <int> <dbl> <dbl> <dbl> <dbl> <dbl> <dbl> #> 1 1 15.1 15.3 13.6 12 11.2 13.5 #> 2 2 16.2 14.6 11.4 12.5 13.4 14.6 #> 3 3 16.1 12.3 14.8 13.9 14.9 13 #> 4 4 12.8 9.9 9.5 9.1 7.7 10.2 1. Re-compute an identical tibble my_tbl_2 by transforming one of the posPsy_... datasets (using dplyr) and verify that my_tbl and my_tbl_2 are equal. #### Solution my_tbl_2 <- posPsy_wide %>% group_by(intervention) %>% summarise(mn_cesd_0 = round(mean(cesdTotal.0, na.rm = TRUE), 1), mn_cesd_1 = round(mean(cesdTotal.1, na.rm = TRUE), 1), mn_cesd_2 = round(mean(cesdTotal.2, na.rm = TRUE), 1), mn_cesd_3 = round(mean(cesdTotal.3, na.rm = TRUE), 1), mn_cesd_4 = round(mean(cesdTotal.4, na.rm = TRUE), 1), mn_cesd_5 = round(mean(cesdTotal.5, na.rm = TRUE), 1) ) # Check resulting tibble: my_tbl_2 #> # A tibble: 4 × 7 #> intervention mn_cesd_0 mn_cesd_1 mn_cesd_2 mn_cesd_3 mn_cesd_4 mn_cesd_5 #> <dbl> <dbl> <dbl> <dbl> <dbl> <dbl> <dbl> #> 1 1 15.1 15.3 13.6 12 11.2 13.5 #> 2 2 16.2 14.6 11.4 12.5 13.4 14.6 #> 3 3 16.1 12.3 14.8 13.9 14.9 13 #> 4 4 12.8 9.9 9.5 9.1 7.7 10.2 # Make intervention an integer variable: my_tbl_2$intervention <- as.integer(my_tbl_2$intervention) # Verify that they are equal: all.equal(my_tbl, my_tbl_2) # TRUE #> [1] TRUE 1. Visualize the information expressed by my_tbl in a transparent way (e.g., by creating a bar or line plot). Hint: If this is difficult by using data = my_tbl in ggplot, use a data file that is better suited for this purpose. Why can’t you just directly plot my_tbl? #### Solution Problem: The tibble my_tbl contains the relevant results, but they are distributed over 6 different variables (columns). To plot this data with ggplot2, we would need a table with only 1 dependent variable (i.e., a table in long-format). As an alternative, we use the data from posPsy_long in which cesdTotal is contained as 1 variable, which we can group by occasion and intervention: my_tbl_3 <- posPsy_long %>% group_by(occasion, intervention) %>% summarize(mean_cesd = round(mean(cesdTotal), 1)) # my_tbl_3 # Turn intervention into a factor: my_tbl_3$intervention <- factor(my_tbl_3\$intervention)
# my_tbl_3

# Note the difference:
knitr::kable(my_tbl_3, caption = "This table contains our key dependent variable (mean_cesd) in 1 column.")
Table A.13: This table contains our key dependent variable (mean_cesd) in 1 column.
occasion intervention mean_cesd
0 1 15.1
0 2 16.2
0 3 16.1
0 4 12.8
1 1 15.3
1 2 14.6
1 3 12.3
1 4 9.9
2 1 13.6
2 2 11.4
2 3 14.8
2 4 9.5
3 1 12.0
3 2 12.5
3 3 13.9
3 4 9.1
4 1 11.2
4 2 13.4
4 3 14.9
4 4 7.7
5 1 13.5
5 2 14.6
5 3 13.0
5 4 10.2

# Visualize summary table as line graph:
ggplot(my_tbl_3, aes(x = occasion, y = mean_cesd, group = intervention,
color = intervention, shape = intervention)) +
geom_line(size = 1, alpha = .25) +
geom_point(size = 4) +
labs(title = "Mean depression scores by intervention and occasion",
x = "Occasion", y = "Mean CES-D score") +
scale_color_manual(values = unikn::usecol(c(Pinky, Seeblau, Seegruen, "black"))) +
theme_classic()

### A.5.4 Exercise 4

#### False-positive psychology

Having considered the benefits of positive psychology, we can now consider the pitfalls of false-positive psychology: Presenting incidential and irrelevant results as statistically significant findings. An intriguing article on this phenomenon reports noteworthy results based on two datasets :

• Simmons, J.P., Nelson, L.D., & Simonsohn, U. (2011). False-positive psychology: Undisclosed flexibility in data collection and analysis allows presenting anything as significant. Psychological Science, 22(11), 1359–1366. doi: https://doi.org/10.1177/0956797611417632

The data was published separately and pre-processed to facilitate working with it. (See Section B.2 of Appendix B for details on the data and corresponding articles.)

The following table was created by summarizing the data of both studies. It reports the mean, minimum, and maximum age of participants per condition cond, as well as the number of people in those conditions who reported to feel a certain age (from very young to very old):

Table A.14: Age-related data from Simmons et al. (2011).
cond n mn_ag mi_ag mx_ag fl_vyng fl_yng fl_mid fl_old fl_vold
64 25 21.09 18.30 38.24 0 13 10 2 0
control 22 20.80 18.53 27.23 3 15 3 1 0
potato 31 20.60 18.18 27.37 1 17 11 2 0
1. Enter this data as a tibble tbl_1 (by using the tibble or the tribble command).

#### Solution

Using the tibble command:

# (a) Using tibble:
tbl_1 <- tibble(
cond = c("64", "control", "potato"),
n = c(25, 22, 31),
mean_age = c(21.09, 20.80, 20.60),
youngest = c(18.30, 18.53, 18.18),
oldest = c(38.24, 27.23, 27.37),
feel_vyoung = c(0, 3, 1),
feel_young = c(13, 15, 17),
feel_neither = c(10, 3, 11),
feel_old = c(2, 1, 2),
feel_vold = c(0, 0, 0) )

knitr::kable(tbl_1, caption = "Data entered (by using tibble).")
Table A.15: Data entered (by using tibble).
cond n mean_age youngest oldest feel_vyoung feel_young feel_neither feel_old feel_vold
64 25 21.09 18.30 38.24 0 13 10 2 0
control 22 20.80 18.53 27.23 3 15 3 1 0
potato 31 20.60 18.18 27.37 1 17 11 2 0

Using the tribble command:

# (a) Using tribble:
tbl_2 <- tribble(~cond, ~n, ~mean_age, ~youngest, ~oldest,
~feel_vyoung, ~feel_young, ~feel_neither, ~feel_old,   ~feel_vold,
#--------|----|------|------|------|---|---|---|---|---|
"64",      25, 21.09, 18.30,   38.24,  0, 13, 10,  2,  0,
"control", 22, 20.80, 18.53,   27.23,  3, 15,  3,  1,  0,
"potato",  31, 20.60, 18.18,   27.37,  1, 17, 11,  2,  0 )

knitr::kable(tbl_2, caption = "Data entered (by using tribble).")
Table A.16: Data entered (by using tribble).
cond n mean_age youngest oldest feel_vyoung feel_young feel_neither feel_old feel_vold
64 25 21.09 18.30 38.24 0 13 10 2 0
control 22 20.80 18.53 27.23 3 15 3 1 0
potato 31 20.60 18.18 27.37 1 17 11 2 0

## Check identity:
# all.equal(tbl, tbl_1)   # same, except for type differences
all.equal(tbl_1,  tbl_2)  # TRUE
#> [1] TRUE
1. Import the original dataset (either from the ds4psy package or from CSV-file) and re-create the data of tbl_1 from the original data as a new tibble tbl_org (by using dplyr).
# Import the dataset:
falsePosPsy_all <- ds4psy::falsePosPsy_all  # from ds4psy package
# falsePosPsy_all <- readr::read_csv("http://rpository.com/ds4psy/data/falsePosPsy_all.csv")  # online

Hints: Check the codebook of the False positive psychology data (see Section B.2 of Appendix B) to understand the variables of the dataset. For instance, participants’ age in years is stored in a variable called aged365.

#### Solution

# Re-creating the data in tbl_1 from the original data:
tbl_org <- falsePosPsy_all %>%
group_by(cond) %>%
summarise(n = n(),
mean_age = round(mean(aged365, na.rm = TRUE), digits = 2),
youngest = round(min(aged365, na.rm = TRUE), digits = 2),
oldest = round(max(aged365, na.rm = TRUE), digits = 2),
feel_vyoung = sum(feelold == 1),
feel_young = sum(feelold == 2),
feel_neither = sum(feelold == 3),
feel_old = sum(feelold == 4),
feel_vold = sum(feelold == 5)
)
knitr::kable(tbl_org, caption = "Same data re-created from raw data.")
Table A.17: Same data re-created from raw data.
cond n mean_age youngest oldest feel_vyoung feel_young feel_neither feel_old feel_vold
64 25 21.09 18.30 38.24 0 13 10 2 0
control 22 20.80 18.53 27.23 3 15 3 1 0
potato 31 20.60 18.18 27.37 1 17 11 2 0

## Verify identity:
# all.equal(tbl_1,  tbl_org)  # TRUE, except for different column types (numeric vs. integer).
1. Visualize the following aspects of the data (by using ggplot2):

• Use the tibble tbl_org to plot the number of participants per condition (e.g., as a bar plot).

• Plot the mean age per condition with the minimum and the maximum age (e.g., by using geom_pointrange).

#### Solution

# Plotting the number of participants per condition:
ggplot(tbl_org, aes(x = cond, y = n, fill = cond)) +
geom_bar(stat = "identity") +
labs(title = "Distribution of participants per condition",
x = "Condition", y = "Number of participants") +
# scale_fill_brewer(palette = "Set1") +
scale_fill_manual(values = unikn::usecol(c(Pinky, Seeblau, Signal))) +
ds4psy::theme_ds4psy()


# Plotting mean age per condition with the minimum and the maximum age:
ggplot(tbl_org, aes(x = cond, y = mean_age, color = cond)) +
geom_pointrange(aes(ymin = youngest, ymax = oldest), size = 1, shape = 19) +
labs(title = "Mean age per condition with minimum and maximum age",
x = "Condition", y = "Age (in years)") +
# scale_color_brewer(palette = "Set1") +
scale_color_manual(values = unikn::usecol(c(Pinky, Seeblau, Signal))) +
ds4psy::theme_ds4psy()


## Compare with a plot from raw data: -------
# falsePosPsy_all

ggplot(falsePosPsy_all, aes(x = cond, y = aged365, color = cond)) +
geom_violin(width = .40) +
geom_boxplot(width = .20) +
geom_jitter(width = .10, color = "black", alpha = 1/2) +
labs(title = "Age values per condition",
x = "Condition", y = "Age (in years)",
color = "Condition:") +
scale_color_manual(values = unikn::usecol(c(Pinky, Seeblau, Signal))) +
ds4psy::theme_ds4psy()

This concludes our set of exercises on tibbles, but we will keep using tibbles throughout this book.

### References

Simmons, J. P., Nelson, L. D., & Simonsohn, U. (2011). False-positive psychology: Undisclosed flexibility in data collection and analysis allows presenting anything as significant. Psychological Science, 22(11), 1359–1366. https://doi.org/10.1177/0956797611417632
Simmons, J. P., Nelson, L. D., & Simonsohn, U. (2014). Data from paper “False-Positive Psychology: Undisclosed Flexibility in Data Collection and Analysis Allows Presenting Anything as Significant”. Journal of Open Psychology Data, 2(1). https://doi.org/10.5334/jopd.aa