## 4.1 Coastal pilotage

The simplest approach to coastal navigation is simply to follow a linear feature (like a coastline) and know how far along this we are by the things that we have passed.

What landmarks would we expect to see on a paddle from Portloo to Old Town?

Paddling out of Portloo, turn left around a rocky area (island at HW). Pass a small beach, a rocky promontory, a second beach and a lifeboat station. Paddle past the town beach and round the pier. Pass a small island, turning left. Pass a point and turn left again. Left again at a point with a beacon offshore. Sharp left inside some islands into a beach with buildings behind. Back out of this bay, past an indent (island) to a major headland (lighthouse). Round the headland, offshore island, smaller headland and into Old town bay (look for main road and the town).

### 4.1.1 Distance, speed and time

It is useful and good practice to estimate the time that should be taken to get to the next waypoint on the route. This enables estimation of how far has been paddled (e.g. ‘we’re half way there’) and acts as a check on the speed of the group. Slow progress could indicate tired paddlers or an unexpected tidal stream in the opposite direction.

If speed is known, time taken in minutes can be estimated by multiplying the distance in nautical miles by:

• 30 for 2 knots speed
• 20 for 3 knots speed
• 15 for 4 knots speed

How long will it take to paddle from Portloo to Old Town at 2 knots?

The distance is a little tricky to measure around the wiggly coastline. It is around 6 grid squares = 6 km. 6 km is approximately 3 nautical miles.

Time taken = distance / speed = 3 / 2 = 1.5 hours = 90 minutes

Or, using the numbers given above, time taken = 3 miles X 30 = 90 minutes