2.1.1 Nature and Nurture
Most scholars agree that there is a constant interplay between nature (heredity) and nurture (the environment). It is difficult to isolate the root of any single characteristic as a result solely of nature or nurture, and most scholars believe that even determining the extent to which nature or nurture impacts a human feature is difficult to answer. In fact, almost all human features are polygenic (a result of many genes) and multifactorial (a result of many factors, both genetic and environmental). It’s as if one’s genetic make-up sets up a range of possibilities, which may or may not be realized depending upon one’s environmental experiences. For instance, a person might be genetically predisposed to develop diabetes, but the person’s lifestyle may determine whether or not they actually develop the disease.
This bidirectional interplay between nature and nurture is the epigenetic framework, which suggests that the environment can affect the expression of genes just as genetic predispositions can impact a person’s potentials. And environmental circumstances can trigger symptoms of a genetic disorder.42
22.214.171.124 Environment Correlations
Environment Correlations refer to the processes by which genetic factors contribute to variations in the environment (Plomin, DeFries, Knopik, & Neiderhiser, 2013). There are three types of genotype-environment correlations:
Passive genotype-environment correlation occurs when children passively inherit the genes and the environments their family provides. Certain behavioral characteristics, such as being athletically inclined, may run in families. The children have inherited both the genes that would enable success at these activities, and given the environmental encouragement to engage in these actions.
Evocative genotype-environment correlation refers to how the social environment reacts to individuals based on their inherited characteristics. For example, whether one has a more outgoing or shy temperament will affect how he or she is treated by others.
Active genotype-environment correlation occurs when individuals seek out environments that support their genetic tendencies. This is also referred to as niche picking. For example, children who are musically inclined seek out music instruction and opportunities that facilitate their natural musical ability.
Conversely, Genotype-Environment Interactions involve genetic susceptibility to the environment. Adoption studies provide evidence for genotype-environment interactions. For example, the Early Growth and Development Study (Leve, Neiderhiser, Scaramella, & Reiss, 2010) followed 360 adopted children and their adopted and biological parents in a longitudinal study. Results have shown that children whose biological parents exhibited psychopathology, exhibited significantly fewer behavior problems when their adoptive parents used more structured parenting than unstructured. Additionally, elevated psychopathology in adoptive parents increased the risk for the children’s development of behavior problems, but only when the biological parents’ psychopathology was high. Consequently, the results show how environmental effects on behavior differ based on the genotype, especially stressful environments on genetically at-risk children.44
2.1.2 Genes and Chromosomes
Now, let’s look more closely at just nature. Nature refers to the contribution of genetics to one’s development. The basic building block of the nature perspective is the gene. Genes are recipes for making proteins, while proteins influence the structure and functions of cells. Genes are located on the chromosomes and there are an estimated 20,500 genes for humans, according to the Human Genome Project (NIH, 2015).
Normal human cells contain 46 chromosomes (or 23 pairs; one from each parent) in the nucleus of the cells. After conception, most cells of the body are created by a process called mitosis. Mitosis is defined as the cell’s nucleus making an exact copy of all the chromosomes and splitting into two new cells.
However, the cells used in sexual reproduction, called the gametes (sperm or ova), are formed in a process called meiosis. In meiosis, the gamete’s chromosomes duplicate, and then divide twice resulting in four cells containing only half the genetic material of the original gamete. Thus, each sperm and egg possesses only 23 chromosomes and combine to produce the normal 46.
|Type of Cell Division||Explanation||Steps|
|Mitosis||All cells, except those used in sexual reproduction, are created by mitosis||Step 1. Chromosomes make a duplicate copy|
|Mitosis||All cells, except those used in sexual reproduction, are created by mitosis||Step 2. Two identical cells are created|
|Meiosis||Cells used in sexual reproduction are created by meiosis||Step 1. Exchange of gene between the chromosomes (crossing over)|
|Meiosis||Cells used in sexual reproduction are created by meiosis||Step 2. Chromosomes make a duplicate|
|Meiosis||Cells used in sexual reproduction are created by meiosis||Step 3. First cell division|
|Meiosis||Cells used in sexual reproduction are created by meiosis||Step 4. Second cell division|
Given the amount of genes present and the unpredictability of the meiosis process, the likelihood of having offspring that are genetically identical (and not twins) is one in trillions (Gould & Keeton, 1997).
Of the 23 pairs of chromosomes created at conception, 22 pairs are similar in length. These are called autosomes. The remaining pair, or sex chromosomes, may differ in length. If a child receives the combination of XY, the child will be genetically male. If the child receives the combination XX, the child will be genetically female.48
Here is an image (called a karyogram) of what the 23 pairs of chromosomes look like. Notice the differences between the sex chromosomes in female (XX) and male (XY).
126.96.36.199 Genotypes and Phenotypes & Patterns on Inheritance
The word genotype refers to the sum total of all the genes a person inherits. The word phenotype refers to the features that are actually expressed. Look in the mirror. What do you see, your genotype or your phenotype? What determines whether or not genes are expressed? Because genes are inherited in pairs on the chromosomes, we may receive either the same version of a gene from our mother and father, that is, be homozygous for that characteristic the gene influences. If we receive a different version of the gene from each parent, that is referred to as heterozygous.
In the homozygous situation we will display that characteristic. It is in the heterozygous condition that it becomes clear that not all genes are created equal. Some genes are dominant, meaning they express themselves in the phenotype even when paired with a different version of the gene, while their silent partner is called recessive. Recessive genes express themselves only when paired with a similar version gene. Geneticists refer to different versions of a gene as alleles. Some dominant traits include having facial dimples, curly hair, normal vision, and dark hair. Some recessive traits include red hair, being nearsighted, and straight hair.
Most characteristics are not the result of a single gene; they are polygenic, meaning they are the result of several genes. In addition, the dominant and recessive patterns described above are usually not that simple either. Sometimes the dominant gene does not completely suppress the recessive gene; this is called incomplete dominance.50
188.8.131.52 Genetic Disorders
Most of the known genetic disorders are dominant gene-linked; however, the vast majority of dominant gene linked disorders are not serious or debilitating. For example, the majority of those with Tourette’s Syndrome suffer only minor tics from time to time and can easily control their symptoms. When dominant-gene linked diseases are serious, they do not tend to become symptomatic until later in life. Huntington’s Disease is a dominant gene linked disorder that affects the nervous system and is fatal, but does not appear until midlife.
Recessive gene disorders, such as cystic fibrosis and sickle-cell anemia, are less common but may actually claim more lives because they are less likely to be detected as people are unaware that they are carriers of the disease.
Some genetic disorders are sex-linked; the defective gene is found on the X-chromosome. Males have only one X chromosome so are at greater risk for sex-linked disorders due to a recessive gene such as hemophilia, color-blindness, and baldness. For females to be affected by recessive genetic defects, they need to inherit the recessive gene on both X-chromosomes. But if the defective gene is dominant, females are equally at risk.
Here are tables of some genetic disorders:
Recessive Disorders (Homozygous): The individual inherits a gene change from both parents. If the gene is inherited from just one parent, the person is a carrier and does not have the condition.
|Disorder||Description||Cases per Birth|
|Sickle Cell Disease (SCD)||A condition in which the red blood cells in the body are shaped like a sickle (like the letter C) and affect the ability of the blood to transport oxygen.||1 in 500 Black births|
|Sickle Cell Disease (SCD)||A condition in which the red blood cells in the body are shaped like a sickle (like the letter C) and affect the ability of the blood to transport oxygen.||1 in 36,000 Hispanic births|
|Cystic Fibrosis (CF)||A condition that affects breathing and digestion due to thick mucus building up in the body, especially the lungs and digestive system. In CF, the mucus is thicker than normal and sticky.||1 in 3500|
|Phenylketonuria (PKU)||A metabolic disorder in which the individual cannot metabolize phenylalanine, an amino acid. Left untreated, intellectual deficits occur. PKU is easily detected and is treated with a special diet.||1 in 10,000|
|Tay Sachs Disease||Caused by an enzyme deficiency resulting in the accumulation of lipids in the nerves cells of the brain. This accumulation results in progressive damage to the cells and a decrease in cognitive and physical development. Death typically occurs by age five.||1 in 4000|
|Tay Sachs Disease||Caused by an enzyme deficiency resulting in the accumulation of lipids in the nerves cells of the brain. This accumulation results in progressive damage to the cells and a decrease in cognitive and physical development. Death typically occurs by age five.||1 in 30 American Jews is a carrier|
|Tay Sachs Disease||Caused by an enzyme deficiency resulting in the accumulation of lipids in the nerves cells of the brain. This accumulation results in progressive damage to the cells and a decrease in cognitive and physical development. Death typically occurs by age five.||1 in 20 French Canadians is a carrier|
|Albinism||When the individual lacks melanin and processes little to no pigment in the skin, hair, and eyes. Vision problems can also occur.||Fewer than 20,000 US cases per year|
Autosomal Dominant Disorders (Heterozygous): In order to have the disorder, the individual only needs to inherit the gene change from one parent.
|Disorder||Description||Cases per Birth|
|Huntington’s Disease||A condition that affects the individual’s nervous system. Nerve cells become damaged, causing various parts of the brain to deteriorate. The disease affects movement, behavior and cognition. It is fatal, and occurs at midlife.||1 in 10,000|
|Tourette Syndrome||A tic disorder which results in uncontrollable motor and vocal tics as well as body jerking||1 in 250|
|Achondroplasia||The most common form of disproportionate short stature. The individual has abnormal bone growth resulting in short stature, disproportionately short arms and legs, short fingers, a large head, and specific facial features.||1 in 15,000-40,000|
Sex-Linked Disorders: When the X chromosome carries the mutated gene, the disorder is referred to as an X-linked disorder. Males are more affected than females because they possess only one X chromosome without an additional X chromosome to counter the harmful gene.
|Disorder||Description||Cases per Birth|
|Fragile X Syndrome||Occurs when the body cannot make enough of a protein it needs for the brain to grow and problems with learning and behavior can occur. Fragile X syndrome is caused from an abnormality in the X chromosome, which then breaks. If a female has a fragile X, her second X chromosome usually is healthy, but males with fragile X don’t have a second healthy X chromosome. This is why symptoms of Fragile X usually are more serious in males.||1 in 4000 males|
|Fragile X Syndrome||Occurs when the body cannot make enough of a protein it needs for the brain to grow and problems with learning and behavior can occur. Fragile X syndrome is caused from an abnormality in the X chromosome, which then breaks. If a female has a fragile X, her second X chromosome usually is healthy, but males with fragile X don’t have a second healthy X chromosome. This is why symptoms of Fragile X usually are more serious in males.||1 in 8000 females|
|Hemophilia||Occurs when there are problems in blood clotting causing both internal and external bleeding.||1 in 10,000 males|
|Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy||A weakening of the muscles resulting in an inability to move, wasting away, and possible death.||1 in 3500 males|
Chromosomal Abnormalities: A chromosomal abnormality occurs when a child inherits too many or two few chromosomes. The most common cause of chromosomal abnormalities is the age of the mother. As the mother ages, the ovum is more likely to suffer abnormalities due to longer term exposure to environmental factors. Consequently, some gametes do not divide evenly when they are forming. Therefore, some cells have more than 46 chromosomes. In fact, it is believed that close to half of all zygotes have an odd number of chromosomes. Most of these zygotes fail to develop and are spontaneously aborted by the mother’s body.54
Here is a table of some autosomal chromosomal disorders:
Autosomal Chromosome Disorders: The individual inherits too many or two few chromosomes.
|Down Syndrome/Trisomy 21||Caused by an extra chromosome 21 and includes a combination of birth defects. Affected individuals have some degree of intellectual disability, characteristic facial features, often heart defects, and other health problems. The severity varies greatly among affected individuals.|
|Trisomy 9 Mosaicism||Caused by having an extra chromosome 9 in some cells. The severity of effects relates to the proportion of cells with extra chromosomes. The effects include fetal growth restriction resulting in low birth weight and multiple anomalies, including facial, cardiac, musculoskeletal, genital, kidney, and respiratory abnormalities.|
|Trisomy 13||Caused by an extra chromosome 13. Affected individuals have multiple birth defects and generally die in the first weeks or months of life.|
|Trisomy 18||Caused by an extra chromosome 18 and the affected individual also has multiple birth defects and early death.|
When the abnormality is on 23rd pair, the result is a sex-linked chromosomal abnormality. This happens when a person has less than or more than two sex chromosomes.58
Here is a table of some sex-linked chromosomal disorders:
|Turner Syndrome (XO)||Caused when all or part of one of the X chromosomes is lost before or soon after conception due to a random event. The resulting zygote has an XO composition. Turner Syndrome affects cognitive functioning and sexual maturation in girls. Infertility and a short stature may be noted.|
|Klinefelter Syndrome (XXY)||Caused when an extra X chromosome is present in the cells of a male due to a random event. The Y chromosome stimulates the growth of male genitalia, but the additional X chromosome inhibits this development. The male can have some breast development, infertility, and low levels of testosterone.|
|XYY Syndrome||Caused when an extra Y chromosome is present in the cells of a male. There are few symptoms. They may include being taller than average, acne, and an increased risk of learning problems. The person is generally otherwise normal, including normal fertility.|
|Triple X Syndrome (XXX)||Caused when an extra X chromosome is present in the cells of a female. It may result in being taller than average, learning difficulties, decreased muscle tone, seizures, and kidney problems.|
Lifespan Development - Module 3: Prenatal Development by Lumen Learning references Psyc 200 Lifespan Psychology by Laura Overstreet, licensed under CC BY 4.0↩︎
Image by Community College Consortium for Bioscience Credentials is licensed under CC BY 3.0↩︎
Trisomy 9 Mosaicism Diagnosed In Utero by Hironori Takahashi, Satoshi Hayashi, Yumiko Miura, Keiko Tsukamoto, Rika Kosaki, Yushi Itoh, and Haruhiko Sago is licensed under CC BY 3.0; Lifespan Development: A Psychological Perspective (page 39) by Martha Lally and Suzanne Valentine-French is licensed under CC BY-NC-SA 3.0↩︎
Image by Ashley Onken used with permission↩︎
XYY Syndrome by Wikipedia is licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0; Triple X Syndrome by Wikipedia is licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0; Lifespan Development: A Psychological Perspective (page 39) by Martha Lally and Suzanne Valentine-French is licensed under CC BY-NC-SA 3.0↩︎