11.9 Bilingualism - also known as Dual Language Learners or English Language Learners

Although monolingual speakers (those that only speak one language) often do not realize it, the majority of children around the world are bilingual, (they understand and use two languages). (Meyers- Sutton, 2005). Even in the United States, which is a relatively monolingual society, more than 47 million people speak a language other than English at home, and about 10 million of these people are children or youth in public schools (United States Department of Commerce, 2003). The large majority of bilingual students (75%) are Hispanic, but the rest represent more than a hundred different language groups from around the world. In larger communities throughout the United States, it is therefore common for a single classroom to contain students from several language backgrounds at once. In classrooms, as in other social settings, bilingualism exists in different forms and degrees.

The Iceberg Analogy.^[[Image](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:The_Iceberg_Model.gif) by [LEAP](http://leap.tki.org.nz/Is-bilingualism-a-problem) is licensed under the [Free Art License](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/en:Free_Art_License)]

Figure 11.29: The Iceberg Analogy.481

The student who speaks both languages fluently has a definite cognitive advantage. As you might suspect and research confirmed, a fully fluent bilingual student is in a better position to express concepts or ideas in more than one way, and to be aware of doing so (Jimenez, Garcia, & Pearson, 1995; Francis, 2006). Having a large vocabulary in a first language has been shown to save time in learning vocabulary in a second language (Hansen, Umeda & McKinney, 2002).482

  1. Image by LEAP is licensed under the Free Art License↩︎

  2. Lifespan Development: A Psychological Perspective by Martha Lally and Suzanne Valentine-French is licensed under CC BY-NC-SA 3.0↩︎