9.3 Erikson: Initiative vs. Guilt

Psychologist Erik Erikson argues that children in early childhood go through a stage of “initiative vs. guilt”. If the child is placed in an environment where he/she can explore, make decisions, and initiate activities, they have achieved initiative. On the other hand, if the child is put in an environment where initiation is repressed through criticism and control, he/she will develop a sense of guilt.

Children playing in the sand.^[[Image](https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Nice_sweet_children_playing_in_sand.jpg) is in the public domain]

Figure 9.3: Children playing in the sand.339

The trust and autonomy of previous stages develop into a desire to take initiative or to think of ideas and initiative action. Children may want to build a fort with the cushions from the living room couch or open a lemonade stand in the driveway or make a zoo with their stuffed animals and issue tickets to those who want to come. Or they may just want to get themselves ready for bed without any assistance. To reinforce taking initiative, caregivers should offer praise for the child’s efforts and avoid being critical of messes or mistakes. Soggy washrags and toothpaste left in the sink pales in comparison to the smiling face of a five-year-old that emerges from the bathroom with clean teeth and pajamas!340

  1. Image is in the public domain↩︎

  2. Children’s Development by Ana R. Leon is licensed under CC BY 4.0 (modified by Antoinette Ricardo)↩︎