Preface
This book introduces quantitative research in the scientific and health disciplines. The whole research process is introduced, from asking a research question to analysis and reporting of the data. The main focus, however, is the analysis of data.
Supporting documents
To support this textbook, the following are also available:
 A Tutorial Book; and
 A Software Support Book with brief instruction for using jamovi and SPSS to perform most of the analyses in this book.
These books are both freely available online.
The datasets used in this book
Almost every dataset used in this book is a real dataset. Most are provided in the R package SRMData; also see App. A.
Statistical software
Most of this book can be read without relying on any specific statistical software. However, sometimes jamovi (The jamovi Project 2022) output is shown.
jamovi is free to download and use. While jamovi looks a little like a spreadsheet, underneath it uses the R statistical package (R Core Team 2018).
How to use this online book

Navigation: Navigate between pages depends on the size of your screen. On wider screens:
 The leftside menu is for navigating between chapters.
 The rightside menu is for navigating between the sections of the current chapter.
Words can be searched for using Search button on the menu:
The book is optimised for online viewing, and the book may be updated frequently, so a printed PDF version may not be the most recent version.
In some places, interactive 'quiz' questions are given. In the online version, the background turns from red to green when the answer is correct. Try it now:
 What is \(1 + 1\)?
 What is \(1 + 2\)?
 Is \(2 + 2 = 4\)?
 Which one of these is FALSE?
Callouts used on this book
The following callouts are used in this book:
These chunks introduce the objectives for the chapters of the book.
These chunks highlight common mistakes or warnings, about a particular concept or about using a formula.
These chunks offer helpful information.
These chunks refer to information about using software (jamovi) or a calculator.
These chunks indicate how certain symbols and terms are pronounced.
These chunks give you questions to think about.
Who can use this book?
The online textbook is free for anyone to use.
Although not essential, an email to the author (explaining how the textbook is being used, who is using the textbook, and your thoughts on the textbook) would be appreciated: pdunn2 <at> usc.edu.au
.
How this book was made
This book was made using R (R Core Team 2018), and the bookdown package (Xie 2016), which is based on Markdown syntax, using knitr (Xie 2015). Numerous other R packages were used too. All of this software is free and open source. Other resources used include:
 Some online activities are created using LearningApps.org, which is free to use.
 Icons are from iconmonstr, and are freely available.
 The images of the cards (e.g., in Sect. 20.2) are from https://code.google.com/archive/p/vectorplayingcards/, and are in the public domain.
 The images of dice used in, for example, Sect. 19.4, are from https://pixabay.com/vectors/dicegamesgamesixsidedface26772/, and are free.
 The images used in the online book are free (and used according to their guidelines), as listed in Appendix ??.
Special thanks to Dr Amanda Shaker (La Trobe University), who has advised of numerous issues (with the corrections).
Learning Outcomes
In this book, you will learn to:
 Develop quantitative research questions and testable hypotheses.
 Design quantitative studies to answer simple quantitative research questions.
 Select and produce appropriate graphical, numerical and statistical analyses.
 Select, apply and interpret the results of the correct statistical technique to analyse data.
 Comprehend, apply and communicate in the language of research and statistics.
 Demonstrate professional integrity in planning, interpreting and reporting the results of quantitative studies.
How to cite this book
Peter K. Dunn (2023). Scientific Research and Methodology: An introduction to quantitative research in science and health. https://bookdown.org/pkaldunn/SRMTextbook
The online version of this book is licensed under the Creative Commons AttributionNonCommercialShareAlike 4.0 International License. You can purchase a printed copy from CRC Press in 2024.