This book introduces quantitative research in the scientific and health disciplines. The whole research process is introduced, from asking a research question to analysis and reporting of the data. The main focus, however, is the analysis of data and understanding the underlying concepts.

Supporting this book

To support this textbook, the following are also available (and freely available online):

Almost every dataset used in this book is a real dataset and available in the R package SRMData; also see App. A.

Statistical software

Most of this book can be read without relying on any specific statistical software. However, sometimes jamovi (The jamovi Project 2022) output is shown.

jamovi is free to download and use. While jamovi looks a little like a spreadsheet, underneath it uses the R statistical package (R Core Team 2018).

How to use this online book

  • Navigation: Navigate between pages depends on the size of your screen. On wider screens:

    • The left-side menu is for navigating between chapters.
    • The right-side menu is for navigating between the sections of the current chapter.
  • Words can be searched for using Search button on the menu:

The book is optimised for online viewing, and the book may be updated frequently, so a printed PDF version may not be the most recent version.

In some places, interactive 'quiz' questions are given. In the online version, the background turns from red to green when the answer is correct. Try it now:

  1. What is \(1 + 1\)?
  2. What is \(1 + 2\)?
  3. Is \(2 + 2 = 4\)?
  4. Which one of these is FALSE?

Call-outs used on this book

The following call-outs are used in this book:

These chunks introduce the objectives for the chapters of the book.

These chunks highlight common mistakes or warnings, about a particular concept or about using a formula.

These chunks offer helpful information.

These chunks refer to information about using software (jamovi) or a calculator.

These chunks indicate how certain symbols and terms are pronounced.

These chunks give you questions to think about.

How this book was made

This book was made using R (R Core Team 2018) with the bookdown package (Xie 2016), using Markdown syntax and knitr (Xie 2015). Numerous other R packages were used too. All of this software is free and open source. Other resources used include:

Special thanks to Dr Amanda Shaker (La Trobe University), who has advised of numerous issues (with the corrections).

Image credits

The sources of the images used in the online version of this book (in accordance with the terms of Unsplash, Pixabay and Pexels) are listed below.

Learning Outcomes

In this book, you will learn to:

  • Develop quantitative research questions and testable hypotheses.
  • Design quantitative studies to answer simple quantitative research questions.
  • Select and produce appropriate graphical, numerical and statistical analyses.
  • Select, apply and interpret the results of the correct statistical technique to analyse data.
  • Comprehend, apply and communicate in the language of research and statistics.
  • Demonstrate professional integrity in planning, interpreting and reporting the results of quantitative studies.

How to cite this book

Peter K. Dunn (2023). Scientific Research and Methodology: An introduction to quantitative research in science and health.

The online version of this book is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License. You can purchase a printed copy from CRC Press in 2024.