3.5 Scenarios, planned and realized measurements

  • Any phenomenon/variable has a trajectory over time
  • We have more or less observations of that trajectory
  • Generally, the more observations the better
  • Scenario: How variable develops over time (P. C. Bauer 2016) (blue line)
  • Planned measurements: Timing of planned measurements (blue points)
  • Realized measurement: Timing of actual measurements (blue points)
  • Q: What is the problem with the following measures (think of time/change)?
    • What is the highest level of education you have successfully completed?
    • Have you been insulted or threatened verbally since (month, year)?
  • Q: Can you think of some data where we might almost observe a continuous function across time?
  • Insight: Ideally, we know when a variable changes.


Bauer, Paul C. 2016. “The Visual Display of Causal Relationships.”