- Numeric values generated through measurement
- Example: ‘Negative Experiences and Trust: A Causal Analysis of the Effects of Victimization on Generalized Trust’ (P. C. Bauer 2015)
- What is the causal effect of victim2006 on trust2006?
- Variables: Victim (0,1), Education (0-10) → Trust (0-10)
- Sample: 6633 Individuals (Switzerland!)
- Units: Individuals
- Unit of analysis: Depends on the model
- Q: How do we normally show/look at data?
Bauer, Paul C. 2015. “Negative Experiences and Trust: A Causal Analysis of the Effects of Victimization on Generalized Trust.” Eur. Sociol. Rev. 31 (4): 397–417.