12.1 Descriptive vs. causal questions (Repetition)
12.1.1 Descriptive questions (and analysis)
- How are observations distributed across values of Y? (univariate)6
- e.g. How are observations distributed across income categories?
- How are observations distributed across values of Y and X?
- How are observations distributed across income and gender values?
- We can add as many variables/dimensions as we like
- How are observations distributed across income, gender and time values?
- Normally we summarize those distributions using models (associational inference)
- e.g. means of income across gender across time
12.1.2 Causal questions (and analysis)
- Is there a causal link between the distribution across values of Y and values of D?
- Do differences in D cause differences in Y? (see app)
- …in practice we tend to summarise those distributions..
- Continuous variables: Compare means
- Categorical variables (several): Compare probabilites for categories
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