Column 7 (247-256)

Esna 247

šps.t wsr.t
ḥnw.t nṯr.w-nṯry.t

ỉr(.t) nn r-ȝw
nỉ ḫpr ḫprw
ỉt mw.t n nṯr nb
[…] m ḥw.t-ỉt […]

A The King of Upper and Lower Egypt,
Father of fathers,
mother of mothers,
August136 and mighty one,
mistress of gods and goddesses.

who made all this in its entirety,
who came into existence,
before existence existed,
father and mother of every god
[…] in the Temple of the Father […]

Ptḥ pn
qmȝ ḥmw.w
ḥr-ỉb ṯpḥ.t-ḏȝ.t
ḏfn mnḫ
nb nṯr.w rmṯ
ṯȝw n ʿnḫ n nṯr nb

B The King of Upper and Lower Egypt,
this Ptah,
who created the craftsmen
within the Blocked Cavern;
beneficent ancestor,
lord of gods and people,
breath of life for every god.138

Esna 248

  • Location: Column 7, upper bandeau
  • Date: Hadrian
  • Hieroglyphic Text
  • Bibliography: None.

Cartouches of Hadrian, before Khnum and Horus Behedety. Conventional spellings.

Esna 249

NB: This hymn continues from Esna 318


rs=k nfr
p(ȝ) qd wr
ẖnmw-Rʿ nb tȝ-sn.t

grg tȝ
m r’-ʿ.wy=f
wbȝ nḥp
qmȝ msḫn.wt
Šȝỉ Rnn.t
ỉr wḏ
ẖnmw ỉr ẖnmw.w

Awake beautifully,
Great Builder139,
Khnum-Re Lord of Esna!

He who populates the earth
with his handiwork,
who opens the potter’s wheel,
who creates the birth-bricks,
Shai and Renenet,
who makes the decree:
Khnum, who made the Khnums.


rs=k nfr
nb ww
qd swḥ
sʿnḫ ṯȝw
ỉr=f ṯȝw
r fnḏ nb
ʿnḫ=sn r mȝȝ=f
ỉr zȝ
ḥr s.t ỉt=f

Awake beautifully,
Lord of the agricultural domain!
He who builds the egg,
and enlivens the chick,
as he makes air
for every nose;
they live in order to see him.
He who makes a son
in the place of his father.


rs=k nfr
ḥry nḥp
nḥp nṯr.w
ẖnm ḥr(.w) nb
ḥr nḥp=f
m rn=f n ẖnmw
nb Ỉwny.t
ḫnty Pr-ʿnḫ

sḥḏ snk
dr šzp=f 2ʿ-kkw
sšm ẖ.t m ḏbʿ.w=f
m rn=f pfy
n ẖnmw-Rʿ nb tȝ-sn.t
ḫnty ỉtr.t-šmʿ

Awake beautifully,
Chief of the Potter’s Wheel!
Who fashioned the gods,
and formed everybody
upon his potter’s wheel,
in his name of Khnum,
Lord of Iunyt,
foremost of Per-ankh.

He who weaves his light,
who illumines darkness,
whose radiance repels 2 obscurity,
who guides the body with his fingers,
in this his name
of Khnum-Re, Lord of Esna,
foremost of the Chapel of Upper Egypt.140


rs ḥry nḥp
ḥr qdỉ rmṯ.w ʿw.t mnmn.t
ḥrr.w rm.w ȝpd.w
wp ʿ(.t)
rw.ty ỉnm
pnʿ ns r mdw

Awake, Chief of the Potter’s wheel!141
Building humans, all livestock,
serpents, fish, fowl;
he who separates each limb,
surrounds (them with) skin,142
and distinguished tongues to speak.


rs kȝ ẖr.wy
sḫp(r) nty
ḥr wbȝ ỉd.t
ỉr mw m qs.w

Awake, bull with testicles!
He who creates what is,
while opening the womb;
who makes semen in bones.


rs kȝ sṯỉ
ḥry nfr.w
ws(n) pfy
ỉr nḏmnḏm

sṯȝ 3z.t=f
ḥr ṯpḥ.t
ḥȝy Ḥʿpỉ
ḥr bʿḥ ȝḫ.t

Awaken, ejaculating bull!
who mounts the beautiful ones,
this lusty ram,
who makes sexual pleasure.

He who draws back his door-bolt
from the grotto,
so that Hapi floods,
inundating the field.


rs kȝ ḫrwy
ḥr sḫr sbỉ.w
hd bdš.w
m nḫt.w=f

Awaken, warrior bull!
striking down the rebels,
destroying the disaffected
with his might.


rs ẖnmw-Rʿ nb tȝ-sn.t
nṯr ʿȝ nb sḫ.t
nb ʿnḫ
ḫnty nb-ʿnḫ
rdỉ ḫ.t-n-ʿnḫ
n ʿnḫ.w

kȝ.w m-ḫ.t=f
[ḏfȝ.w ḥr?] ʿ.wy=f
ỉr ẖr.wt tȝ
m ỉḫt=f

Awake, Khnum-Re Lord of Esna,
great god, Lord of the Field,
Lord of life (nb ʿnḫ),
foremost of Neb-ankh (nb-ʿnḫ),
who gives the wood-of-life (ḫ.t-n-ʿnḫ)
to the living (ʿnḫ.w).

The Kas follow him,
[provisions are upon?] his arms,
making nourishment for the earth
through his food.


rs=k nfr
Šw ṯmȝ-ʿ
ḫnty Pr-nṯr
4pḏ nmt.wt
ḫnty sḫ.t=f
ḥwỉ ʿȝpp
smȝ sbỉ.w n ỉt=f

sȝḥ Bȝq.t
ỉn ẖȝ(.w)t
m grḥ wʿ
ʿq pr=f m nḏm-ỉb
m rn=f pfy
n nb sḫ.t

Awaken beautifully,
Shu, valiant of arm,
foremost of Per-netjer!
4 Broad of steps
within his field,
who slays Apophis,
and kills the rebels of his father.

He who reaches Egypt,
and attains the lagoons (of the Delta)
in a single night;
who joyously returns to his domain
in this his name,
of Lord of the Field.


rs=k nfr(?)
[…] ḥr swḏȝ swḥ.t
ḫwỉ nỉw.t=f
nh nỉwty.w=f
ỉr zȝ pr=f rʿ-nb
qmȝ ḥmw.w
ḥry-ỉb ṯpḥ(.t)-ḏȝ.t

Awake beautifully(?),
[…] keeping the egg healthy,
he who protects his city,
and guards his citizens,
and protects his domain, every day.
He who creates the artisans
within the Blocked Cavern.


rs=k nfr m ḥtp
Šw wr
ḫnty Ỉwny.t
ṯȝw n ʿnḫ
n fnḏ nb

Awake beautifully in peace,
Shu the great,
foremost of Iunyt,
breath of life
to every nose.


rs Tfn.t
5ḥ r-ḥnʿ=k
m rn=s n Mnḥy.t-Nb.t-ww
ṯȝ.wy n Rʿ
dmḏ(.w) m zp wʿ

N.t mw.t-nṯr Rʿ
ḥr qmȝ ḏ.t=tn
šd=s ḥʿw=tn
m ḥḏ.t=s

May Tefnut awake,
5 dwelling beside you,
in her name of Menhyt-Nebtu:
the children of Re,
united as one.

Neith, the divine mother of Re,
creates your bodies,
she nourishes your flesh
with her milk.


rs=tn m ḥtp

rs ẖnmw Mnḥy.t
rs=tn ḥ m ḥtp

rs ẖnmw Nb.t-ww m ḥtp ḥ m ḥtp

rs Šw tfn.t ḥ

rs ṯȝ.wy n Rʿ m ḥtp ḥ

rs zȝ.ty Ỉtm m ḥtp ḥ

rs zȝ.ty ỉr.ty m ḥtp ḥ

rs rw.ty
6nṯr.w pȝwty.w
ms.w tȝ-ṯnn
ḫp(r.w) m Rʿ
Ỉtm ḥnʿ ṯȝ.ty=f
Ḥʿpỉ ḥnʿ sḫ.t
m rn=sn n ẖnmw Nb.t-ww
nṯr.w ʿȝ.w m kȝ=tn
dmḏ ḏ.t=tn

rs mw.t-nṯr
ḥ r-ḥnʿ=tn
nỉ ḥrỉ=s r=t(n) rʿ-nb

May you awake in peace!

May Khnum and Menhyt awake,
may you awake having rested,
awake in peace!

May Khnum and Nebtu awake in peace,
awake having rested,
awake in peace!

May Shu and Tefnut awake,
awake having rested!

May the kids of Re awake in peace,
awake having rested!

May the children of Atum awake in peace,
awake having rested!

May the children-eyes awake in peace,
awake having rested!

May the two lions awake,
6 the primeval gods,
whom Tatenen bore,
who came about from Re,
Atum with his kids,
Hapi and the Field,
in their names of Khnum and Nebtu.
‘The Great Gods’ in your name,
as your bodies are united.

May the Mother of God awake,
dwelling beside you,
she never leaves you, ever.


ỉw zȝ Rʿ
(pr-ʿȝ ʿnḫ(.w) ḏ.t)|
dỉ=tn n=f
ṯȝw nḏm r fnḏ=f
Mnḥy.t m ḥȝ.t
ỉw[=f] m ḫwỉ
n.t rnp.t tn
nḥm=s tw
m-ʿ ỉḫt nb ḏw

The Son of Re,
(Pharaoh living eternally)|
is before all of you.
May you grant him
sweet air to his nose;
Menhyt installed on (his) brow,
so [he] is protected
from this year,
as she preserves him
from all evil things.

Esna 250

§1. Khnum, artisan of the human body

6ky dwȝ ẖnmw-Rʿ
grg.n=f tȝ
m r’-ʿ.wy=f

6 Another hymn of Khnum-Re,
Chief of 7 the potter’s wheel,143
he having populated the earth
through his activity.

qȝs ḫnty štȝ.t
ḫwzỉ ms ṯȝ.wy
sʿnḫ.n=f ṯȝ.w
m nfw n rȝ=f

sȝp.n=f tȝ pn
ẖr Nwn
šn-wr pẖr-wr [m-]pẖr=f

qdỉ.n=f nṯr.w rmṯ.w
snb.n=f ʿ.wt mn(mn.t)
ỉr.n=f ȝpd.w m-ʿb ḫn[n.w]
sỉpỉ.n=f kȝ.w
ms.n=f ỉd.wt

He who assembles within the womb,
who builds while keeping chicks healthy,
having enlivened children
with the breath of his mouth.

He constructed144 this planet,
including Nun,
as the šn-wr and pẖr-wr seas surrounded him.

He modeled gods and humans,
he fashioned all livestock,
he made birds along with fi[sh],
he constructed bulls,
and he birthed cows.

ṯz8.n=f ḥpt wtr
m qs.w
nbỉ ḫnty bd.t
m r’-ʿ.wy=f

ỉsk swḥ n ʿnḫ
m-ḫnt ỉḫt nb
ḥwỉ wtr twt(.w)
m-ʿb mw m qs.w
r nḫb ȝḫȝḫ.w=f m šȝʿ

bẖ.n=f ḥm.t
ỉw ẖ.t r dmḏy.t=s
r wp(.t) […]

He 8 stitched the circulation of blood
to bones,
fashioning within the womb145
through his activity.

The breath, moreover, of life
within all things:
he who strikes congealed146 blood
together with semen from the bones
to assemble a skeleton in the beginning.

And he made the woman give birth,
when the womb reaches its time,
to open […]

[…] šw.t
sʿnḏ.n=f ḫw
r dd-ỉb=f
(ḥr) snḏm 9ẖ.wt
m srq-ḥty.t
r sʿnḫ ṯȝ.wy
ḫnt bd.t

[He …] all assistants
as he desires,
and he reduced all cares
as his heart dictates;
making bodies 9 pleasant,
for those who breathe,
in order to enliven chicks
within the womb.

sȝḫȝḫ.n=f dbn
srwḏ.n=f sȝr
(ḥr) nbỉ ỉnmw ḥr ʿ.wt

ḫwz.n=f hnn
nbỉ.n=f mnḏ.t
r ʿpr ỉrw n smnw.w

zš.n=f ỉr.ty
wbȝ.n=f ʿnḫ.wy
snsn.n=f ẖ.t
m ỉgb

As he made hair thrive,
so he made fur grow,
fashioning skin over limbs.

He constructed a head,
then he fashioned a face,
to endow ‘statues’ (humans) with forms.

As he opened (space for) eyes,
so he dug out ears,
having let the body breathe
through air.

10ỉr.n=f r’ r wnm
msn.t r sʿm
ḥwỉ(?)=f šsȝw ỉsk
ḥr ḫnỉ
ʿr.ty ḥr p(ȝ)ḫd
ḥngg.t ḥr sʿm
qȝb.t ḥr ʿm m-ʿb bš

b[k]sw ḥr rmn
bỉk ḥr dbdb
msḫt(yw) m kȝ.t pr-ʿ
ʿr.t ḥr ỉr(.t) kȝ.t
ḥn.t ḥr ȝm
ḏr.ty 11ỉry
ḥr ỉr(.t) bȝk=sn

10 He made the mouth for eating,
the oral cavity147 for swallowing,
and he sets the tongue in motion
while speaking/singing;
the jaws chew,
the esophagus swallows,
and the throat swallows and vomits.

The spine carries,
and the shoulders support;
the upper arm performs heroic work,
the elbow does (other) work,
the palm graps,
and the hands 11 likewise
perform their service.

nṯry ḥr sšm
zmȝ ḥr rmn
wtṯ ỉsk ḥr sṯỉ

ỉwf n ḥȝ.t
ḥr ndb ỉḫt nb
ỉwf n pḥwy
ḥr snsn
ỉmy.w ẖ.t mỉt.t
ḥr ḥms-m-wḥʿ
ḥr sʿnḫ štȝ.wt
m rk-kkw

The divine-heart leads,
the lungs support,
while the penis ejaculates.

The (female) ‘front parts’ (lit. flesh)
absorb everything;
the ‘rear part’ (lit. flesh)
vents (lit. let breathe)
the internal organs,
both while dining,
and while keeping embryos alive
in the ‘time of darkness’ (i.e. pregnancy)148.

ḥʿw-ʿnḫ ḥr sṯỉ
bd.t ḥr šzp
ḥr swr ḏȝm[.w] m ḫt-mn

špty.t ḥr 12ỉfn
ỉw ỉmy-ʿnḫ ḥr bš
ḥr swr
zḫn m mn.ty

The phallus ejaculates,
and the womb receives,
increasing generation[s] in the world.

The bladder 12 pours out liquid,
but the penis ejaculates (semen)
while growing bigger
and uniting with the loins.149

sbq.wy ḥr sqd
ỉḥ.ty ḥr ḫnd
ḥḏ.w ỉry ḥr ỉrw=sn

ỉw=sn ȝ (r)-ȝw
n ỉb
12nḥp=sn (r)-ḏr=w
ḥr nḥp=f

The calves move around,
the thighs travel,
all bones are in their functions:

Indeed all these things, in their entirety,
are from the mind150
12 of He who modeled them all upon his potter’s wheel

§2. Khnum, creator of diversity

pnʿ=sn wḥm
n spȝ.t nb r k.t
šd(.t) ḏȝr
r ỉdb.w-Ḥr

qmȝ13.n=f bỉȝ.wt
m-ẖnw tȝ=sn
ḥr fȝỉ bȝk=sn ỉry
(r) rw.t wr(.t)

nḥp sw ỉt=sn tȝ-ṯnn
(ḥr) sḫp(r) wnn.t nb.w
ỉr=sn ẖr.t
m ỉrw rmṯ.w
nw tȝ-Ỉbh(?)
r šd.t ḥʿw=sn
m-ʿb ms.w=sn

They change their language
from one region to the next,
when one compares (them)
to Egypt.

He 13 created marvelous products
within their lands,
thus carrying all their tribute
(to) the Great Gate.

Their father, Tatenen, modeled them,
he who creates all that exists
upon their soil,
so they might make food (thereby),
in the manner of people
from the Land of Ibhat (Wadi Allaqi),151
in order to nourish their bodies,
along with (those) of their children.

ỉšš.n r’=f
ḫp(r)=sn ḥr-ʿ
nn whn
šȝỉ nḥp
ỉw=f 14ḥr dbn rʿ-nb

His mouth spat out
and they came about immediately;
what the potter’s wheel has fated
can never fail,
it (the wheel) 14 spins every day.

ỉr.n=k nb
ḥr dwȝ n=k nṯr
twt Ptḥ-tȝ-ṯnn
qmȝ qmȝ.w
sḫp(r).n=f nty nb
m-ẖnw Ỉwny.t

šd.n=f ṯȝ.wy
m mḥn
r dmḏy.t=f
sbš.n=f ỉd.t
r pẖry.t=s

All whom your made
praise god for you,
you are Ptah-Tatenen,
who created the creators,
having produced all that is
within Iunyt.

As he nourished the chicks
in the womb
until its appointed time,
so he made the uterus expel (the baby)
at its proper time.

qd.n=f rmṯ.w
ms.n=f nṯr.w
ỉr.n=f ʿ.wt mnmnm.t
15qmȝ.n=f pȝy.w ḫnn.w
ḥrr.w nb
shrp.n=f ḫḏ.w
(m)-qȝb n.t
m qr.ty r-ḫt=f
r sḏfȝ nṯr.w
r nw=f

sḫp(r).n=f ỉdḥ.w
m-ẖnw sḫ.t
sṯḥn.n=f ỉdb.w
m ḥrr.w
qnn.n=f np(ry)
n ḫ.t-n-ʿnḫ
ḥr ỉr(.t) dỉ.t pȝww.t
n nṯr.w rmṯ.w

16ptḥ.n=f ʿȝ.wt
n.w ẖ.wt
sqȝʿ.n=f štȝ.wt

As he modeled humans,
so he birthed the gods,
and made all livestock,
15 and created birds and fish,
and all serpents;
he stirred up the fish
within the n.t-waters,152
from the grottos in his wake,
to provision the gods
at his season.

He created marsh plants
within the field,
and he made the banks shine
with flowers;
he made grains fatten
from the ‘wood-of-life’,
causing food to be given
to gods and humans.

16 He created the precious stones
in the quarries,
and he made mines spit (them) out
from their interiors.

§3. Different forms of Khnum

16ỉw=f m ḥȝ.t-nỉw.wt
m bȝ n Rʿ
ḥr qdỉ rmṯ.w m-ḫt tȝ pn

wnn=f m tȝ-sn.t
(m) bȝ ʿnḫ n Šw
ḥr ẖnm ḥr.w-nb.w
ḥr nḥp=f
qd.n=f rmṯ.w
ms.n=f nṯr.w
ʿnḫ=n m pr ỉm=f
snsn.n=f ḥtp(ty.w)
m 17ỉs-nȝw

ỉw=f m šȝʿ=s-ḥtp
m bȝ n Wsỉr
ḥr qdỉ ʿw.t nb
m r’-ʿ.wy=f

ỉw=f m ḥr-wr
m bȝ n Gbb
ḥr qdỉ wnn.t nb(.t)
m tȝ pn

16 He is in First of the Cities
(Elephantine) as the Ba of Re,153
modeling humans throughout this land.

When he is in Esna,
(as) the living Ba of Shu,
modeling all people
upon his potter’s wheel;
as he formed humans,
so he birthed the gods,
and he lives from what comes from him;
he allowed the blessed (dead) to breathe
as 17 a pleasant wind.

He is in Shas-hotep,
as the Ba of Osiris,
building all animals
through his activity.

He is in Her-wer,
as the Ba of Geb,
modeling all that exists
in this earth.

ỉw=f m nb mȝʿ-ḫrw
m smn-Ḥr
ḥr ỉr(.t) ȝpd.w
m fd.t n ḥʿw=f

wḥm.n=f qd=f
18m ḫnty sḥ-nṯr
ḥr stwḫ Wsỉr
m wʿb.t
qd.n=f ỉḫt nb
m-ẖnw ʿ.wy=f
ḥr zȝ Wsỉr
m-gs=f wnmy

mk sw m Qbḥw
m zȝ.ty-ỉr.ty
ḥr zȝ nsw.t-bỉty
m gs=f ỉȝbty
ʿnḫ.tw ḏ.t

wḥm.n=f ḫprw=f
m swȝḏ-bȝ (m) Pr-nṯr
ỉr.n=f ỉḫt nb
m-ẖnw sḫ.t19=f
srwḏ.n=f šny.w-tȝ
swr.n=f np(ry)
r sʿnḫ ḥr-nb
m ỉḫt=f

pnʿ.n=f qd=f
m ḏf(n) mnḫ
m-ẖnw ỉȝ.t-ṯȝ.wy
ḥr qdỉ rmṯ.w ʿw.t nb

He is Lord of Justification154
in Semenhor,
making birds
through the sweat of his body.

He changed his form
18 as Foremost of the Divine Tent,
mummifying Osiris
in the emblaming hall;
he made all things
within his hands,
protecting Osiris
on his right side.

Look, he is in the First Cataract,
as the two eye-children,
protecting the King,
on his left side,
living eternally.

He changed his manifestation again
as Souadj-ba (in) Per-netjer;
he made all things
within his 19 field:
he made plants grow,
and he increased grain,
to sustain everybody
with his products.

He transformed again
as the beneficent ancestor,
within Mount of the Chicks,
modeling humans and all animals.

msḫn.t 4.t ỉry r-gs=sn
ḥr wʿf sḫr.w n ḏw
m ḥknw

ʿḥʿ=sn m nb
ḫnty ỉtr.ty šmʿ mḥw
ḥr s.t
ỉr nty
qmȝ 20wnn.t
ʿpr m r’
ʿrf tȝ.wy

dmḏ=sn qd=sn
ḫp(r).n ḥry-tȝ n tȝ-ṯnn
ḏr ḥȝ.t
wḥm=sn ḫprw=sn
m nḫb ḥr-sȝ=f
m pẖr-ns.t
n ḏḏ.w m šȝʿ

They are busy creating,
the 4 birth-bricks beside them,
thwarting any evil designs
through praise.

They stand up as Lord,
foremost of the dual chapels of Egypt,
upon the throne of:
He who made what is
and created 20 what exists;
The effective one;
He who satisfied the heart;
He who protects the body;
He who is equipped of utterance;
He who binds the two lands.155

They unite their forms,
so came about the heir of Tatenen,
since the beginning;
they changed their manifestation again,
in the lotus after him,
being the successor
of the Djedu-spirits in the beginning.

nỉ sk.n kȝ=sn
nỉ thỉ.n drf.w21=sn
nn tp-šw
m ỉr.n=f nb

ỉw=sn dḫ
ḫnty srq.w-ḥty.t
ḥr sḫp(r) wnn.t nb
m ḏr.w-nṯr.w

wn=sn ʿnḫ.tw ḏ
mỉ Rʿ
ḥr wbn ḥtp

ḥtp ḥr=k nfr
n (pr-ʿȝ ʿnḫ ḏ.t)|

What they plan cannot perish,
their guidance 21 cannot be ignored,
nothing they have made
is lacking something.

They are concealed
from before all mortals,
producing all that exists
since the limits of the gods.

They exist, living and enduring
like Re,
rising and setting.

May your beautiful face be kind,
to the (Pharaoh living forever)|!

Esna 251

21dỉ(.t) ỉȝw n Mnḥy.t

21 Giving praise to Menhyt.
Words spoken:


tw.t Rʿ.t
sḥḏ.t tȝ.wy
mn=s 22ḥȝ=s
m tp Rʿ
m rn=s pfy n Mnḥy.t

You are Rayet,
who illumines the two lands,156
she remains (mn) 22 and shines (ḥȝ)
on the head of Re,
in this her name of Menhyt (Mnḥy.t).


tw.t nt ỉr(.t) nty
qmȝ(.t) wnn.t
qmȝ(.t) nṯr.w
ḥȝy n Ḥʿpỉ
tmȝ.t wr.t
šȝʿ(.t) ṯz pr.t
ỉr(.t) nty
qmȝ(.t) ỉḫt nb
m rn=t pf n N.t

You are the nt-waters who made what is (nty),
and created what exists (wnn.t);
Mother of God,
who created the gods;
the surging of Hapi;
the great Mother,
who began the binding of seeds,
who made what is (nty),
and created all things,
in this your name of Neith (N.t).


tw.t šps.t wsr.t
ršw Rʿ n mȝȝ=s
ʿȝ mrw.t
23nṯr.t ʿȝ wpy
šȝʿ.tw n=s nhm

sḏ.t ỉr(.t) tmȝ.t
n qmȝ <sy>
m rn=s pfy n Mw.t

You are the great, august one,
whom Re rejoices to see;158
great of love,
23 the goddess great of wpy-festival,
for whom rejoicing was invented.

The girl who acted as mother (tmȝ.t)
for he who created <her>,159
in this her name of Mut (Mw.t).


tw.t msw.t
ỉr n=s ỉt=s Rʿ
ȝḫ.t ns.t
ḥqȝ=f nswy.t=f
m p.t tȝ
r ỉr(.t) ḥtp=s ỉm
m rn=s (n) Nb.t-ḥtp.t

You are the replica,
for whom her father Re made:
the Akhet, the throne,
his rule, his kingship
on heaven and earth,
in order to make her satisfied (ḥtp),
in her name of Nebet-hetepet (Nb.t-ḥtp.t).


tw.t wr.t-ḥkȝw
ʿȝ bȝ.w n psḏ.t
ḥnw.t šps.wt
nb(.t) hrw ȝbd.w
ỉ n=s ḥb n tr rnp.t
r sḥtp=s
m rn=s pfy n Sḫm.t

You are Weret-hekau,
great of power in the Ennead,
mistress of the šps.wt,
Lady of days and months,160
for whom one holds annual festivals
in order to appease her,161
in this her name of Sakhmet.


tw.t ḥnw.t
ṯnỉ(.tw) ḫnt nṯ
wbn(.t) mḥn.t m tp
n ỉt=s Rʿ
m rn=s 24n Mḥy.t

You are the mistress,
most distinguished of goddesses,
who rises and coils (mḥn) upon the head
of her father, Re,
in her name 24 of Mehyt (Mḥy.t).162


tw.t nb(.t) ʿgny
ỉqḥ(.t) Wȝs.t m mȝfd.t
bẖ(.t) šww
m ḥw.t-mw.t
ʿq(.t) ḥqȝ-ʿnḏ m snw.t
m rn=s pfy n Ḥw.t-ḥr

You are the Lady of ’Agny,163
who enters Thebes as a panther,164
and gives birth to the sun
in the Mut Temple;
Eye of Re,
who enters Heliopolis on the 6th day,
in this her name of Hathor.


tw.t ỉʿrr.t ʿnḫ(.t)
ḥnw.t ʿḥ
nb(.t) p.t
sšm(.t) tȝ.wy
ʿȝ sḫr.w m s.t nb
m rn=s pfy n Ỉs.t

You are the living uraeus,
mistress of the palace,
Lady of heaven,
guide of the two lands,
great of plans in all places (s.t),
in this her name of Isis (Ỉs.t).


tw.t nb.t ḫnt-tȝ
r-mn pḥw.w
ʿnḫ.t m bỉȝ
rdỉ sḫn n bnw
sṯ(.t) Ḥʿpỉ m qr.ty
ḥr 25bʿḥ.n=f tȝ.wy
r tr=f
m rn=s pfy n Spd.t

You are the Lady of Edge of the Land
all the way to the pehus (of the Delta);165
living serpent in the sky,
who makes a conjunction with Benu (Venus),166
and shoots out Hapi from the grottos,
when 25 he floods (sṯ.t) the two lands
at his season,
in this her name of Sothis (Spd.t).


tw.t nbw.t
ḥnw.t sḫ.t
Rnn.t wȝdy.t
sḫpr(.t) ỉḫt nb.w
m wḏȝ=s (r) ȝḫ.t
grg(.t) spȝ.wt nỉw.wt
m qmȝ.n=s
m rn=s pfy n Nb.t-ww

You are the Golden one,
Mistress of the Field,
Renenutet, Wadjyt,167
who produces all things,
when she goes (to) the field;
who populates districts and cities
with that which she created,
in this her name of Nebtu.

ḥtp ḥr=t nfr
n nsw.t-bỉty
(pr-ʿȝ ʿnḫ ḏ.t)|
zȝ-Rʿ nb-ḫʿ.w
(ʿtrʿny ḫwỉ)|
sqr=f wdn.w
n kȝ=t ḏ.t

May you good face be kind
to the Kind of Upper and Lower Egypt,
Lord of the Two Lands,
(Pharaoh Living Eternally)|
Son of Re, Lord of Appearances,
(Hadrian Augustus)|
May he consecrate litanies
for your Ka, eternally.

Esna 252

25dwȝ N.t

25 Hymn to Neith.
[Words spoken:]


tw.t nb(.t) Zȝw
ṯnn pw
2/3=s m ṯȝy
1/3=s m tmȝ.t
štȝ.t ʿȝ.t
šȝʿ(.t) ḫp(r) m ḥȝ.t
šȝʿ(.t) ỉḫt nb

You are the Lady of Sais.
That means Tatenen:
2/3 of her is male,
1/3 is female.
The great Mysterious one,
who began existence in the beginning,
she who began everything.


tw.t gb.t 26ȝy
ʿ.t ỉm=s
ms.n=s ḫȝbs.w r-ȝw=sn
sʿr=s(n) m-ḏr dmy=sn

swḥ sqfn tȝ
m nbỉ.t nt ỉr.ty=s
m hh pr m rȝ=s

mw.t-nṯr Rʿ
wbn(.t) m ȝḫ.t
štȝ.t sšp(.t) m ḥḏḏ.w=s

You are she, moreover,
of whom the firmament 26 is just one part.
She birthed all the decan stars,
they rise then they set.168

The (hot) wind, who cooks the earth,
with the flame of her eyes,
and the blaze that emerged from her mouth.169

Divine mother of Re,
who shines from the Akhet,
Mysterious one who illumines with her rays.


tw.t tp.t
ḫp(r.t) m ḥȝ.t ỉry
nḏ.t n tȝ r-ȝw=f
šȝʿ(.t) ḫp(r)
nỉ ḫp(r) ḫp(r)
ḫp(r) ḫp(r.w)
m-ḫt ḫp(r)=s
m[wt?] ẖr s.t-ḥr=s

You are the initial uraeus,
who came about at the start of it all;170
Guardian of the entire earth;
she who began existence,
before existence existed;
all creation came into being
after she came into being.
D[eath?]171 is under her authority


tw.t ỉr(.t) dwȝ.t
m ỉrw=s
ỉn(.t) (?) 27pḥwy
n nn r-ȝw
m ḏ.t=s n mtr
m rn=s n ḏ.t

nb(.t) mrḥ.t m-ʿb mnḫ.t
fdq(.t) mr=s
n 5 ỉpw
ỉmy.w p.t tȝ

You are she who made the Duat
as her visible form;
she who reaches(?) 27 the end
of this in its entirety,172
in her corporeal form of mtr-waters,173
in her name of linear ḏ.t-eternity.

Lady of ointment and linen,
who apportions (thereof) as she desires
to those 5 beings
who are in heaven and earth.174


tw.t nt
ỉr tȝ
nnw=s pw Nwn
pr nty nb
m pʿpʿ.n=s

sṯ(.t) Ḥʿpỉ r nw=f
rnp(.t) wḥm-ʿnḫ r tr=f
srwḏ(.t) rwḏ
sḫpr(.t) ḫ.t-n-ʿnḫ n ʿnḫ.w

twȝ(.t) [zȝ=s Rʿ]
[ỉmỉ.tw wp.t=s]
[ḏȝ(.t)] Nwn [ẖ]r=f
m Mḥ.t-wr.t
[sḥr=s] sbỉ
ḥr [ḥr mw=f…]

You are the flood water,
who made the earth,
whose child is Nun:175
all that is came forth
as something which she conceived.

She who shoots out Hapi at his time,
who rejuvenates wḥm-ʿnḫ at his season,176
who makes plants flourish,
and creates the “wood of life” for the living.

She who lifts up [her son Re]
[upon her horns],
[she travel across] Nun [be]aring him
as Mehet-weret;
[and she drives away] the rebel
from [those upon his water …]177


tw.t nb(.t) tȝ-sn.t
ḥr(.t)-ỉb sḫ.t štȝ.t
mḥy.t n ỉȝ.t-ṯȝ.wy
rr(.t) n sbk.wy
m rn=sn Šw ḥnʿ tfn.t

ḥpt ḫḫ N.t
sbk.wy m ʿ.wy=s
Rʿ pw ḥnʿ Wsỉr

zȝ(.t) ṯȝ.wy n zȝ=s
m Pr-sȝḥw-Rʿ
dỉ(.t) ḥtp-nṯr n nṯr.w nṯry.t

You are the Lady of Esna,
within the Mysterious Field,
North of Nome of the Chicks.178
Nurse of the two crocodiles,
by name: Shu and Tefnut.

she who embraces the ‘throat of Neith’,179
with two crocodiles in her hands,
that means: Re and Osiris.

She who protects the children of her son,180
in Per-sahure;
who gives offerings to gods and goddesses.


tw.t nb.t […]

You are the nb.t-cow […]181

Esna 253


1mzỉ(=ỉ) n=t wȝḏ.w […]
[…] ʿšȝ
ḫrp=ỉ n=t 2rȝ.w nb.w
m ẖnm.w nb
sr.w [nb].w
šbn(.w) 3mỉ ʿšȝ=sn
ỉw=w n kȝ=t
m wḏ ḥm=t
šms ỉb=t ỉm=w […]

1 As I bring to you papyri […]
[…] numerous,
so I consecrate for you 2 all birds,
consisting of all marsh birds,
and [all] geese,
mixed together 3 as they are numerous.
They belong to your Ka,
through your command:
May you satisfy your heart with them […]

The King

nb tȝ.wy
(ȝwtwgr(twr) kysrs)|
5zȝ Rʿ
nb ḫʿ.w
(Atryns nty-ḫwỉ)|

6nṯr nfr
ṯḥn ḫʿ.w m ẖkr.w=f
n nb.ty
ḫrp […]=sn
n mw.t=f
šm šȝʿ m ỉdḥ.w
ỉnỉ ḥḥ n ms.w
ḫȝ.w n wḏḥ.w
n nb(.t)=f

dỉ snsn […] nfr
nb šȝ(?) […]
([…] ḫwỉ)|

4 The King of Upper and Lower Egypt,
Lord of the Two Lands,
(Autokrator Caesar)|
5 Son of Re,
Lord of Appearances,
(Hadrian Augustus)|

6 The good god,
scintillating of appearances
in his regalia of the Two Ladies,
who consecrates […] their […]
to his mother.
Who walks, starting from the marshes,
and brings millions of products,
and thousands of offerings
to his Lady.

He who allows to smell […] good,
lord of the marsh(?) […]
([….] Augustus)|


7ḏd-mdw n N.t wr.t
mw.t nṯr nb(.t) tȝ-sn.t
ḥr.t s.t wr.t
nb(.t) Zȝw
8ḫnt(.t) N.t

ỉt-ỉt.w mw.t-mw.wt
nỉ ḫpr ḫpr.w
9ḏd(.t) nty
ỉr(.t) wnn.t
nb(.t) šȝy ḥnw.t rnn.t
smȝ sʿnḫ
ẖr s.t-r’=s
10qn sȝ.wy nḫt
ỉr(.t) ḫrwy.t n ḫfty.w

11dỉ=ỉ n=k ỉḫt
dỉ p.t
qmȝ tȝ

7 Words spoken by Neith the great,
Mother of God, Lady of Esna,
upon the great throne.
Lady of Sais,
8 foremost of the Neith nome.

Father of fathers, mother of mothers,
who came into existence,
before existence existed;
9 who says what is,
and makes what exists;
Lady of Shai, Mistress of Renenet,
killing and enlivening
are under her authority.
10 Mighty one, who has strength,
and makes a massacre of the enemies.

11 I give to you (all) things,
which heaven gives,
and the earth creates.


12ḏd-mdw n šmʿ-nfr
[sbk zȝ] N.t
[nṯr] ʿȝ ḥry-ỉb ḥw.t-ṯȝ.wy
nṯr wr
ḫp(r) 13ḫnt
ḫprw ʿȝ n nṯr nb
snn ʿnḫ nty nb sḫ.t

ỉty wḏ-mdw n psḏ.t
14ỉr sbỉ.w=f […]
[…] ṯḥn […]
[…] ʿȝ tȝ-Stỉ(?)

15dỉ=ỉ wsr pḥty=k

12 Words spoken by Shemanefer,
[Sobek, son] of Neith,
great [god] within Temple of the Chicks;
great god,
who came about 13 long ago,
the great manifestation of every god,
living image of the Lord of the Field.182

Sovereign, who issues orders to the Ennead,
14 who makes his rebels […]
[…] scintillating […]
[…] great of Ta-Seti(?) (Nubia).

15 I render your strength mighty

Behind the Divinities

16[…] Nwn
ms(.t) wȝḏ-wr
bkȝ(.t) nṯr.w nb.w
(mw.t) mw.wt
qrḥ.t ʿnḫ.t
pr nty nb ỉm=s
mw.t-nṯr […]
p.t tȝ ʿ
ḫrs srq-ḥty.t(?)
[…] m ḫfʿ=s
N.t nb.t qn

16 […] Nun,
who birthed the Great Green sea,
who bore all gods.
(Mother) of mothers,
living qrḥ.t-serpent,
through whom all things come forth.
Mother of god […]
[…] her […]
Heaven and earth are equipped,
who repels scorpions(?)183
[…] is in her grasp:
Neith, Lady of Victory.

Esna 254


1ḥnk nḥp
n Nḥp
ỉqr ḏbʿ.w m twt wr

[ỉỉ.n]=ỉ ḫr=k
2ỉt=ỉ ẖnmw-Rʿ
ỉnk ỉr m ʿ.wy=k

ỉn=ỉ n=k nḥp pfy
mrỉ ỉb=k
ỉn kȝ.t=k
[grg] tȝ.wy ḫȝs.wt

1 Offering the potter’s wheel
to the Potter:
the (god) excellent of fingers
in a great image.

I [have come] before you,
2 my father, Khnum-Re:
I am one made by your hands.184

I bring to you this potter’s wheel,
which your heart loves:
it is your work
which [populates] all lands.

The King

nb tȝ.wy
(ȝwtwkrtwr ksrs)|

4zȝ Rʿ
nb ḫʿ.w
(ȝtrỉns nty-ḫwỉ)|

5ỉwʿʿ ʿȝ
n wr r nṯr.w
nb nḥp n psḏ.t

6nṯr nfr
qdỉ n ẖnmw-Rʿ
nbỉ n nb (tȝ)-sn.t
ḫp(r) n ḫnty pr[-ʿnḫ]
(m) ȝ.t nt ḫntš

m ḥw.t-ỉt
ỉmỉ.tw pr nb ḥr nḥp=f
r ỉr(.t) nsw(.t)
m fdw n Nw.t
[…] n ḫnty ỉtr.ty šmʿ-mḥw
(ỉtr[nỉs nty]-ḫwỉ)|

3 The King of Upper and Lower Egypt,
Lord of the Two Lands,
(Autokrator Caesar)|
4 Son of Re,
Lord of Appearances,
(Hadrian Augustus)|

5 Great heir
of Greatest of the gods,
Lord of the potter’s wheel of the Ennead.

6 The good god,
constructed by Khnum-Re,
fashioned by Lord of Esna,
who came about
from Foremost of the House of [Life],185
at the moment of rejoicing.

He was distinguished
in the Temple of the Father,
among all those who came forth
upon his potter’s wheel,
to serve as King
in the four corners of the sky,
[…] of Foremost of the Dual Chapels
(Hadr[ian Augus]tus)|

Khnum-Re Lord of Esna

7ḏd-mdw n ẖnmw-Rʿ
nb tȝ-sn.t
nsw.t nṯr.w
grg bw nb
[ḫnt] 8ḥw.t-ỉt
ḫnty [ʿ]-rsy
qmȝ ḥmw.w
ḥry-ỉb 9ṯpḥ.t-ḏȝ.t
qd nsw.t ḥr nḥp nt nḥḥ
[m kȝ.t] 10mnḫ.t nt ḏ.t
ḥrỉ r ṯȝ.w=f
m nỉw.wt 7
m rn=f n ẖnmw

grg.n=k tȝ pn

7 Words spoken by Khnum-Re,
Lord of Esna,
King of the Gods,
who populates every place
[from within] 8 the Temple of the Father.
who created the artisans
within 9 the Blocked Grotto;
who builds the king
upon the eternal potter’s wheel,
[as an] effective 10 work of eternity;
who separates from his children
in 7 different cities(?)186
in his name of Khnum.

11 […]
you have populated this earth


12ḏd-mdw n Mnḥ.t wr.t
nb.t ḫnt-tȝ
sḫm.t ʿȝ.t mr.t Ptḥ
mḥn.t ḥr tp n nṯr nb

Nbw.t 13wr.t n tȝ-ṯnn
ḥr.t-tp n nṯr.w pȝwty.w
ṯz(.t) ỉwʿʿ=s
grg(.t) tȝ.wy
ḥnʿ Nḥp

qrḥ.t r=f
14nt nb rr.t
[…] msḫn.t […]

15dỉ[=ỉ n=k]
ṯz ḏȝm.w […]
ḫr ẖnmw
r pr-ẖnmw

12 Words spoken by Menhyt the great,
Lady of Khent-ta,
Great Sakhmet, beloved of Ptah,
uraeus on the head of every god;

Great 13 Golden one of Tatenen,
uraeus of the primeval gods,
who assembles her heir,
and populates the two lands,
together with the Potter.

The qrḥ.t-serpent, meanwhile,
14 Of the Lord of Renenet,
[…] of the birth-brick […]

15 [I] cause [for you]
that generations are created
before Khnum at Per-Khnum.

Behind the Divinities

16[nsw.t bỉty]
qd r mr=f
nṯr ỉr nṯr
pȝwty tpy
ḫp(r) m ḥȝ.t
[?] ỉn wnn.t
[…] tȝ.wy
qmȝ wnn.t
rwḏ ʿ.wy [ḫr] bw nb
šȝʿ ʿnḫ n Km.t
ỉmy-rȝ/ḥry ẖnmw wr.w 7

16 [The King of Upper and Lower Egypt],
He who builds as his desires,
the god who made (every) god;
the First Primeval one,
who came about in the beginning,
[??] by what exists
[…] the two lands;
who created what exists,
firm of arms [before] all people,
who began life for Egypt,
Chief of the Seven Great Khnums.187

Esna 255

ȝnṯr nfr
štȝ.t ʿȝ.t
[šȝʿ.t] ḫpr m ḥȝ.t
bs(.t) sy ḏs=s
2/3=s m ṯȝy
1/3=s m ḥmw.t
nṯr wʿ
ḫp(r) m snw
tȝ-ṯnn mw.t-nṯr
ṯz(.t) tȝ m pr.t […]

p.t tȝ dwȝ.t
ẖr wḏ=s
nḏ.t n ḫnty-wȝr=f
m-ʿb mȝỉ wr
m sḫ.t ḫnty Ḫm
N.t wr.t

A The good god,
the great, mysterious one,
[who began] creation in the beginning,
the primeval mother,
who made herself come forth;
2/3 of her is male,
1/3 of her is female;
the sole god
who transformed into two;188
Tatenen, mother of god,
who bound the earth with […] seed.

Heaven, earth, and Duat,
are under her command;
the guardian of Khenti-waref (Khnum)
along with the Great Lion (Haroeris),
in the field within Letopolis:189
Neith the great.

Bnṯr nfr
nb hȝy.ty
wbȝ nḥp
qmȝ msḫn.t
šȝy Rnn.t (ḥr) ỉr(.t) wḏ[=f]
grg [tȝ] m r’-ʿ.wy=f
rdỉ zȝ zȝ.t
n nḥỉ sn
ỉr mrr bw nb
m ms.w=sn
ẖnmw-tȝ-ṯnn wr

B The good god,
Lord of the firmaments,190
He who weaves his light (Khnum),
who opens the potter’s wheel,
and creates the birth-brick,
Shai and Renenet perform [his] command.
He who populates [the earth]
through his handiwork;
who gives a son and daughter,
to whomever requests them.
Who makes everybody happy
by means of their children:191
Khnum-Tatenen the great.

Esna 256

Minor inscriptions: cartouches of Hadrian, name of Heka.