Esna III

Esna III Cover


David Klotz

This is a continuation of my ongoing quest to translate all the Roman inscriptions from Esna temple. Elsewhere you may find Esna II, Esna IV, and Esna VI. The goal is to make all of this information easily and freely accessible. A blog would be easy to read and update, but it would be difficult to search and cross reference. A database is certainly slower to navigate, particularly for translations of texts.

The Present Volume

Esna III is devoted to the columns within the pronaos, all covered with extensive columns of hieroglyphic texts. These largely detail the many festivals and rituals performed at Esna and its satellite temples, and associated hymns are recorded in extenso. Many of these texts were translated with short commentary by the original editor, Serge Sauneron, in the masterful volume Sauneron 1962. For a very detailed analysis of the major litanies preserved on certain columns, see now Leitz 2023.

All the published volumes of Esna temple were recently (2021) released as open-access PDFs by the IFAO. Each translation will contain a link to the original hieroglyphic text, and details about secondary literature.

Esna III is by far the largest and densest volume of the series, covering scenes #194-398 (not all with inscriptions). So far, 207/207 (100%) of those scenes are complete and online. As with Esna II, the present transliterations and translations are provisional, and I plan to proofread and standardize spellings after I have completed the remaining Esna volumes, and prepare comprehensive indexes. I am acutely aware of the need to review certain texts in the light of recent publications about Esna, particularly D. von Recklinghausen 2022.

Technical Notes

For each inscription, I link directly to the relevant page of the PDF publications from the IFAO. If you receive an error in this case, usually refreshing the tab with the new link tends to resolve the issue.


I welcome any feedback for this project, whether regarding the format, corrections, alternative suggestions for translations, or notes to any important references I might have overlooked. Or perhaps you would like to volunteer to translate certain texts! You may contact me directly at . I will of course fully acknowledge any suggestions, and add you to the list of contributors.

I would also appreciate help with relevant bibliography, especially newer monographs. I already have most basic references in digital or paper form, but if you noticing any major omissions, please let me know.


Daniel Arpagaus; Maged Mahgoub; Abraham I. Fernández Pichel