## 2.3 Interpreting rotated factor loadings

Interpreting rotated factor loadings in EFA requires a thorough understanding of the direction and strength of the relationship between observed variables and factors. Higher factor loadings suggest strong associations between the factor and observed variables, and help researchers define the factors, whereas cross-loading suggests variables loading on multiple factors. Note that cross-loadings are generally lower than factor loading. When interpreting factor loading, it is important to consider the theoretical and contextual framework underlying the factors.