4.2 Cross loading

This occurs when an item has significant loadings (relative to the sample size defined in the Table) on several factors making it very difficult to associate the item to a factor. Researchers can use several approaches to resolve this issue. (a) use a different rotation method; (b) reduce/increase the number of extracted factors; (c) item deletion (only remove item from the analysis, do not delete from the data); (d) retain the item due to its theoretical relevance, and provide detailed information and the theoretical implication for making such decision.