5.1 Background: ICT Engagement Constructs

The ICT engagement questionnaire was recently introduced by Zylka et al. (2015) and is based on the self-determination theory. ICT engagement is considered a vital component in the development and acquisition of ICT skills through self-regulated learning, enabling individuals to learn and acquire new information and skills throughout their lives. This engagement occurs through the use of ICT in both formal and informal learning environments (Goldhammer, Gniewosz, and Zylka 2016).

The questionnaire is composed of four factors/constructs - Interest in ICT, Perceived ICT competence, Perceived Autonomy in ICT usage and ICT as a topic in social interaction. Goldhammer, Gniewosz, and Zylka (2016) and Zylka et al. (2015) defines the constructs as follows:

  • Interest in ICT describes an individual’s enduring inclination towards engaging with ICT related subjects, tasks, or activities over an extended period of time.

  • Perceived ICT competence pertains to an individual’s perceptions of their own knowledge of ICT, as well as their understanding of how to effectively use ICT skills.

  • Perceived Autonomy in ICT usage relates to an individual’s perception of their level of control and self-directedness in engaging in ICT-related activities.

  • ICT as a topic in social interaction examines the degree to which individuals incorporate ICT into their interpersonal communication and engagement.

Researchers have examined the factor structure of the ICT engagement constructs across several countries. For example, Kunina-Habenicht and Goldhammer (2020) explored the factor structure of these constructs for the German and Switzerland sample who participated in the 2015 PISA assessment. Using structural equation modeling, these researchers confirmed a four-dimensional structure of the ICT engagement construct for the Swiss and German samples.


Goldhammer, Frank, Gabriela Gniewosz, and Johannes Zylka. 2016. “ICT Engagement in Learning Environments.” Assessing Contexts of Learning: An International Perspective, 331–51.
Kunina-Habenicht, Olga, and Frank Goldhammer. 2020. “ICT Engagement: A New Construct and Its Assessment in PISA 2015.” Large-Scale Assessments in Education 8 (1): 1–21.
Zylka, Johannes, Gabriela Christoph, Ulf Kroehne, Johannes Hartig, and Frank Goldhammer. 2015. “Moving Beyond Cognitive Elements of ICT Literacy: First Evidence on the Structure of ICT Engagement.” Computers in Human Behavior 53: 149–60.