Appendix: Codebooks


Variable Variable Descriptions
version Version of ANES 2020 Time Series Release
V200001 2020 Case ID
V200010a Full sample pre-election weight
V200010b Full sample post-election weight
V200010c Full sample variance unit
V200010d Full sample variance stratum
V201006 PRE: How interested in following campaigns
V201114 PRE: Are things in the country on right track
V201119 PRE: How happy R feels about how things are going in the country
V201120 PRE: How worried R feels about how things are going in the country
V201121 PRE: How proud R feels about how things are going in the country
V201122 PRE: How irritated R feels about how things are going in the country
V201123 PRE: How nervous R feels about how things are going in the country
V201129x PRE: SUMMARY: Approve or disapprove President handling job
V201151 PRE: Feeling Thermometer: Joe Biden, Democratic Presidential candidate
V201152 PRE: Feeling Thermometer: Donald Trump, Republican Presidential candidate
V201153 PRE: Feeling Thermometer: Kamala Harris, Democratic Vice-Presidential candidate
V201154 PRE: Feeling Thermometer: Mike Pence, Republican Vice-Presidential candidate
V201155 PRE: Feeling Thermometer: Barack Obama
V201156 PRE: Feeling Thermometer: Democratic Party
V201157 PRE: Feeling Thermometer: Republican Party
V201200 PRE: 7pt scale liberal-conservative self-placement
V201201 PRE: If R had to choose liberal or conservative self-placemt
V201202 PRE: 7pt scale liberal-conservative: Democratic Presidential candidate
V201203 PRE: 7pt scale liberal-conservative: Republican Presidential candidate
V201217 PRE: Who does R think will be elected President
V201219 PRE: Which Presidential candidate will carry state
V201231x PRE: SUMMARY: Party ID
V201232 PRE: Party identity importance
V201233 PRE: How often trust government in Washington to do what is right [revised]
V201237 PRE: How often can people be trusted
V201249 PRE: 7pt scale defense spending: self-placement
V201252 PRE: 7pt scale gov-private medical insurance scale: self-placement
V201262 PRE: 7pt scale environment-business tradeoff: self-placement
V201308x PRE: SUMMARY: Federal Budget Spending: Tightening border security
V201314x PRE: SUMMARY: Federal Budget Spending: welfare programs
V201320x PRE: SUMMARY: Federal Budget Spending: aid to the poor
V201327x PRE: SUMMARY: National economy better or worse in last year
V201330x PRE: SUMMARY: Economy better or worse in next 12 months
V201333x PRE: SUMMARY: Unemployment better or worse in last year
V201336 PRE: STD Abortion: self-placement
V201337 PRE: Importance of abortion issue to R
V201340 PRE: Abortion rights Supreme Court
V201346 PRE: During last year, US position in world weaker or stronger
V201351 PRE: Votes counted accurately
V201352 PRE: Trust election officials
V201353 PRE: How often people denied right to vote
V201354 PRE: Favor or oppose vote by mail
V201359x PRE: SUMMARY: Favor/oppose requiring ID when voting
V201360 PRE: Favor or oppose allowing felons to vote
V201377 PRE: How much trust in news media
V201382x PRE: SUMMARY: Corruption increased or decreased since Trump
V201384 PRE: Favor or oppose House impeachment decision
V201387 PRE: Favor or oppose Senate acquittal decision
V201390 PRE: Federal government response to COVID-19
V201393 PRE: Limits placed on public activity due to COVID-19 too strict or not
V201397 PRE: Income gap today more or less than 20 years ago
V201401 PRE: Government action about rising temperatures
V201405x PRE: SUMMARY: Require employers to offer paid leave to parents of new children
V201406 PRE: Services to same sex couples
V201409 PRE: Transgender policy
V201412 PRE: Does R favor/oppose laws protect gays/lesbians against job discrimination
V201415 PRE: Should gay and lesbian couples be allowed to adopt
V201416 PRE: R position on gay marriage
V201418 PRE: Favor or oppose ending birthright citizenship
V201421 PRE: Should children brought illegally be sent back or allowed to stay
V201424 PRE: Favor or oppose building a wall on border with Mexico
V201433 PRE: Is religion important part of R life [revised]
V201435 PRE: What is present religion of R
V201436 PRE: If R has no particular religion does R mean atheist or agnostic
V201452 PRE: Ever attend church or religious services
V201453 PRE: Attend religious services how often
V201457x PRE: SUMMARY: Full religion summary
V201458x PRE: SUMMARY: Major group religion summary
V201462 PRE: Religious identification
V201502 PRE: R how much better or worse off financially than 1 year ago
V201507x PRE: SUMMARY: Respondent age
V201508 PRE: Marital status
V201510 PRE: Highest level of Education
V201511x PRE: SUMMARY: Respondent 5 Category level of education
V201516 PRE: Armed forces active duty
V201544 PRE: Anyone in HH belong to labor union
V201545 PRE: Who in HH belongs to union
V201546 PRE: R: Are you Spanish, Hispanic, or Latino
V201549x PRE: SUMMARY: R self-identified race/ethnicity
V201553 PRE: Native status of parents
V201554 PRE: Rs: born US, Puerto Rico, or some other country
V201567 PRE: How many children in HH age 0-17
V201569 PRE: Does R use Internet at home
V201570 PRE: Does R use Internet at any other location
V201594 PRE: How worried is R about current financial situation
V201600 PRE: What is your (R) sex? [revised]
V201601 PRE: Sexual orientation of R [revised]
V201602 PRE: Justified to use violence
V201606 PRE: Money invested in Stock Market
V201617x PRE: SUMMARY: Total (family) income
V201620 PRE: Does R have health insurance
V201622 PRE: R concerned about paying for health care
V201624 PRE: Anyone in household tested pos for COVID-19
V201627 PRE: How often self censor
V201628 PRE: How many Guns owned
V202013 POST: R attend online political meetings, rallies, speeches, fundraisers
V202014 POST: R go to any political meetings, rallies, speeches, dinners
V202015 POST: R wear campaign button or post sign or bumper sticker
V202016 POST: R do any (other) work for party or candidate
V202017 POST: R contribute money to individual candidate running for public office
V202019 POST: R contribute money to political party during this election year
V202021 POST: R contribute to any other group that supported or opposed candidates
V202022 POST: R ever discuss politics with family or friends
V202023 POST: How many days in past week discussed politics with family or friends
V202051 POST: R registered to vote (post-election)
V202072 POST: Did R vote for President
V202073 POST: For whom did R vote for President
V202143 POST: Feeling thermometer: Democratic Presidential candidate: Joe Biden
V202144 POST: Feeling thermometer: Republican Presidential candidate: Donald Trump
V202158 POST: Feeling thermometer: Dr. Anthony Fauci
V202159 POST: Feeling thermometer: Christian fundamentalists
V202160 POST: Feeling thermometer: feminists
V202161 POST: Feeling thermometer: liberals
V202162 POST: Feeling thermometer: labor unions
V202163 POST: Feeling thermometer: big business
V202164 POST: Feeling thermometer: conservatives
V202165 POST: Feeling thermometer: U.S. Supreme Court
V202166 POST: Feeling thermometer: gay men and lesbians
V202167 POST: Feeling thermometer: congress
V202168 POST: Feeling thermometer: Muslims
V202169 POST: Feeling thermometer: Christians
V202170 POST: Feeling thermometer: Jews
V202171 POST: Feeling thermometer: police
V202172 POST: Feeling thermometer: transgender people
V202173 POST: Feeling thermometer: scientists
V202174 POST: Feeling thermometer: Black Lives Matter
V202175 POST: Feeling thermometer: journalists
V202178 POST: Feeling thermometer: National Rifle Association (NRA)
V202183 POST: Feeling thermometer: #MeToo movement
V202185 POST: Feeling thermometer: Planned Parenthood
V202232 POST: What should immigration levels be
V202234 POST: Favor or oppose allowing refugees to come to US
V202237 POST: Effect of illegal immigration on crime rate
V202240 POST: Favor or oppose providing path to citizenship
V202243 POST: Favor or oppose returning unauthorized immigrants to native country
V202246 POST: Favor or oppose separating children of detained immigrants
V202253 POST: Less government better OR more that government should be doing
V202255x POST:SUMMARY: Less or more government
V202261 POST: We’d be better off if worried less about equality
V202300 POST: Agree/disagree: blacks should work their way up without special favors
V202301 POST: Agree/disagree: past slavery & discrimination make it difficult for blacks
V202302 POST: Agree/disagree: blacks have gotten less than they deserve
V202303 POST: Agree/disagree: if blacks tried harder they’d be as well off as whites
V202325 POST: Favor or oppose tax on millionaires
V202337 POST: Should federal government make it more difficult or easier to buy a gun
V202342 POST: Favor or oppose banning ‘assault-style’ rifles
V202352 POST: How would R describe social class [EGSS]
V202353 POST: Is R lower middle class, middle class, upper middle class? [EGSS]
V202371 POST: Does increasing diversity made US better or worse place to live
V202375 POST: Favor or oppose federal program giving all citizens $12K/year (STRENGTH)
V202384 POST: Attention to sexual harrassment has gone too far or not far enough
V202388 POST: Favor/oppose allowing transgender people to serve in military
V202416 POST: CSES5-Q05a: Out-group attitudes: minorities should adapt
V202418 POST: CSES5-Q05c: Out-group attitudes: immigrants good for America’s economy
V202419 POST: CSES5-Q05c: Out-group attitudes: America’s culture harmed by immigrants
V202475 POST: Does R consider themself a feminist or anti-feminist
V202477 POST: Feeling thermometer: Asian-Americans
V202478 POST: Feeling thermometer: Asians
V202479 POST: Feeling thermometer: Hispanics
V202480 POST: Feeling thermometer: blacks
V202481 POST: Feeling thermometer: illegal immigrants
V202482 POST: Feeling thermometer: whites
V202491 POST: Do police treat blacks or whites better
V202549 POST: Did Russia try to interfere in 2016 presidential election or not
V202553 POST: Does most scientific evidence show vaccines cause autism or not
V203000 SAMPLE: Sample location FIPS state
V203001 SAMPLE: Sample location state postal abbreviation
V203003 SAMPLE: Census region
vote2pty Two-party vote
vote Trump-Biden-Other vote


Variable Variable Description
statefips State numeric ID
countyfips State numeric ID
fips State/County numeric ID
stateab State Abbreviation
CountyName County Name
low_brthwt % low weight births
adult_smoke % Adult smokers
adult_obesity % obese adults
teenbirth1k teen (15-19yrs) births/10,000 births
docs_10k doctors per 10,000 population
flu_vacc_elder % Midcare patients with flu vaccine
kid_poverty % minors in poverty
vcrim100k Violent crimes per 100,000
airpollution Average daily density of fine particulate matter in micrograms per cubic meter
lifeexp Life expectancy at birth
kid_mort100k Death per 100,000 minors
Infmort1k Infant deaths per 1000 live births
diabetes % Adults w/diabetes
food_insec % who did not have access to a reliable source of food during the past year
drug_death100k Drug overdose deaths per 100,000
mv_death100k Motor vehicle deaths per 100,000
med_HH_inc Median household income
kidlunch % of students eligible for free/discounnted lunch
wht_nwht_seg Higher values indicate greater residential segregation between non-white and white county residents.
homicide_100k Homicides per 100,000
suicide100k Suicides per 100,000
gundeath100k Gun deaths per 100,000
traffic_volume Average traffic volume per meter of major roadways in the county.
internet % households with subscription broadband internet connection
rural % living in rural area
County type County classification
pop_2019 population, 2019
case_sept821 COVID-19 cases through 9/8/21
cases100k_sept821 COVID-19 cases per 100,000 through 9/8/21
deaths_sept821 COVID-19 deaths through 9/8/21
deaths100k_sept21 COVID-19 deaths per 100,000 through 9/8/21
uninsured % under age 65 without health insurance
povtyAug21 Poverty rate August 2021
SVI_sept21 Vulnerability human suffering and financial loss in the event of a disaster (CDC)
CVD_vulerability COVID-19 vulnerability index
totalvote Total votes, 2016
hrcvote Clinton votes, 2016
djtvote Trump votes, 2016
d2pty16 Democratic % of two-party vote, 2016
thirdpct16 Third-party % of total vote, 2016
county_state County Name/State name
hs % HS or equiv degree
4yrcoll % 4-year college degre
postgrad % with post-graduate degree
whitepct % White (non-Hispanic)
blackpct % Black (non-Hispanic)
nativepct % Native-American (non-Hispanic)
apipct % Asian-Paciific Islander (non-Hispanic)
otherpct % Other race/ethicity (non-Hispanic)
latinopct % Latino/Hispanic
under6_pvty % kids under 6 in poverty
senior_pvty % 65+ years-old in poverty
poverty_15 % in poverty 2015
gini_coefficient Income inequality
kid_poverty15 % minors in poverty, 2015
manage_prof % workers in managerial/professional sector
service_occupations % workers in service sector
sales_office % workers in sales/office sector
farming_ % workers in agricutlurall sector
construction % workers in construction ector
production_transp % workers in manufacturring/transport sector
pop2010 population 2010
pop2000 population 2000
nomove_1yr One-year residential stability
foreign_born %foreign-born
foreign_lang % speaking non-English at homw
veterans # military veterans
home_own % Owner-occupided housing
pc_income15 per-capita income 2015
density population per square mile
cvap16 Citizen voting-age population
cvap_turnout16 % turnout 2016, CVAP
State State name
pop_2019 population, 2019
Cdeaths_jan521 COVID-19 deaths through 1/5/21
cases_jan521 COVID-19 cases through 1/5/21
votes_gop20 Republcan votes 2020
votes_dem20 Democratic votes 2020
total_votes20 Total votes, 2020
other_vote20 Third-party votes, 2020
djtpct20 Trump % 2020
jrbpct20 Biden % 2020
d2pty20 Democratic % of two-party vote, 2020
cvap18 Citizen voting-age population, 2018
cvap_turnout20 % turnout 2020, CVAP


Variable Variable Description
wbcountry Country Name
ccode Country Code
hdi_rank HDI Rank
hdi Human Development Index (HDI)
lifexp Life expectancy at birth
mnschool Mean years of schooling
gini1019 Gini coefficient: Income inequality
femexp Female life expectancy at birth
malexp Male life expectancy at birth
fem_mnschool Female mean years of schooling
male_mnschool Male mean years of schooling
gender_inequality Gender Inequality Index: inequality in reproductive health, empowerment and the labour market
matmort Maternal mortality ratio: Number of deaths due to pregnancy-related causes per 100,000 live births.
teen_fert Adolescent birth rate: Number of births to women ages 15–19 per 1,000 women ages 15–19.
fem_leg % female Share of seats in parliament:
fem_seced % of Female Population with at least some secondary education education.
male_seced Male Population with at least some secondary education
fem_labor Female labour force participation rate
male_labor Male labour force participation rate
chg_pop Population average annual growth
urban % Urban population
fert1520 Total fertility rate 2015-2020
inf_no_dtp % Infants lacking immunization against DTP
inf_no_measel % Infants lacking immunization against measles
infant_mort Infant mortality rate: Probability of dying between birth and exactly age 1, expressed per 1,000 live births.
kid_mort Under-five mortality rate: Probability of dying between birth and exactly age 5, expressed per 1,000 live births.
TB100k Tuberculosis incidence: new and relapse tuberculosis cases per 100,000 people.
health_exp Current health expenditure (% of GDP)
sec_ed Population with at least some secondary education
educ_exp Government expenditure on education (% of GDP)
jail100k Prison population per 100,000 people.
homicide100k Homicides per 100,000 people.
fem_suicie Female suicide rate per 100,000 females
male_suicide Male suicide rate (per 100,000 males)
food_def Average supply of calories for food consumption, expressed as a percentage of the average dietary energy requirement
net_mig Net migration rate: Ratio in-migrants and out-migrants per 1,000 people.
internet Internet users: % of People with access to the worldwide network.
mobile_phone Mobile phone subscriptions: Number of subscriptions for the mobile phone service, expressed per 100 people.
docs10k Physicians: Number of medical doctors (physicians), both generalists and specialists, expressed per 10,000 people.
hosp10k Hospital beds: Number of hospital beds available, expressed per 10,000 people.
rural_electric % Rural population with access to electricity
fem_loc_gvt % seats held by women in local government
fem_finance % Women with account at financial institution or with mobile money-service provider
redlist Red List Index: Measure of the aggregate extinction risk across groups of species.
skilled1019 Skilled labour force: Percentage of the labour force ages 15 and older with intermediate or advanced education
mil_exp Military expenditures: All current and capital expenditures on the armed forces
pop19_M Population (millions) 2019
gdp_billions Gross Domestic Product (Billions of US $)
gdp_pc Gross Domestic Product per capita


Variable Name Variable Description
state State name
stateab State abbeviation
abortion_laws # Abortion restrictions in state law
age1825 % 18 to 24 years old
age65plus % older than 65
Approve Biden approval, January-June 2021
Approve_T Trump Approval , January-May 2020
attend_low % who rarely or never attend religious services
aug_cases #COVID19 Cases through 8/30/21
aug_CVD_deathrate COVID deaths/cases through 8/30/21
aug_deaths Cum. #Covid19 deaths 8/30/21
beer gallons of beer consumed per capita
blknh % non-hispanic black
bornagain18 % born again Christian, 2018
Cases10k Covid cases per 10,000, through October 2020
closing_date20 # days prior to election for end of voter registration
coll_4yr % with 4-year college degree
cong10k # religious congregations per 10,000 pop
covid_hosp COVID hospitalizations per 100K pop 9/2/2021
d2pty16 % of 2-party vote for Clinton
d2pty20 % of 2-party vote for Biden
DemLeg2020 % Democratic state legislators, 2020
diabetes % with diabetes in population
Disapprove Biden disapproval, January-June 2021
Disapprove_T Trump disapproval , January-May 2020
docs100k #physician per 100,000 population
early_pct20 early votes as % of total votes 2020
environment Environmental liberalism (0-1) High=liberal
fb % foreign born
FemLeg2020 % female sate legislators, 2020
gaymarr % support for legal gay marriage
gini16 gini index 2016
gtba % with advanced degrees
gundeath100k gun deaths per 100,000 population
immig Immigration liberalism: high=more liberal
infant_mort # infant deaths per 1000 live births
jun_cases #COVID19 Cases through 6/01/21
jun_CVD_deathrate COVID deaths/cases through 6/01/21
jun_death #Covid19 deaths through 6/01/21
latino % Latino population
legprof Legislative professionalism (high=more professional
lgbtq_rgts # legal protection for LGBTQ persons (Human Rights Campaign)
lifeexp life expectancy
lowbirthwt % low birth weight births
margin20 margin of victory (Winner % minus loser %), 2020 pres race
metro % living in metro area
mngt % with management jobs
netage age65plus minus age1825
netdem % Democratic minus % Republican identifiers
netlib % liberal minus %conservative
nonwhite % non-white
NonWhtLeg2020 % non-white in state legislature
nurses1k # Nurses per thousand population
obesity % obese in population
other_occ % other occupations
othnh % not Hispanic, white, black, or API
PCincome2020 per capita income
PerPupilExp per pupil $, k-12 schools
pol_cult Political Culture classification
policy_innov Policy innovation score: high values=innovative states
policy_lib Policy liberalism: high scores–>liberal policies
poverty1819 % living in poverty, 2018-19
prison100k incarcerated people per 100,000 pop
prochoice18 %pro choice, 2018
prof % with professional jobs
race_att racial liberalism (0-1) High=liberal
relig_imp % who say religion is important to them
single % single
south South=1, Other=0
suicide100k suicides per 100k population
Taxburden total state taxes as % of total state income
taxprog tax progressivity (rich pay greater share than poor)–>high=progressive
teenbirth % of births to teen mothers
union % union in workforce
vacc_rate proportion of population with full COVID vaccine
vcrime100k violent crimes per 100,000 population
vep_turnout16 % Eligible voter turnout, 2016
vep_turnout20 % Eligible voter turnout, 2020
whitemale % white male
whtmale_nocol % white male, no college
whtnh % non-Hispanic white population