Arenius, P., Engel, Y., & Klyver, K. (2017). No particular action needed? A necessary condition analysis of gestation activities and firm emergence. Journal of Business Venturing Insights, 8, 87–92.
Bakır, M., Akan, Ş., Özdemir, E., Nguyen, P.-H., Tsai, J.-F., & Pham, H.-A. (2022). How to achieve passenger satisfaction in the airport? Findings from regression analysis and necessary condition analysis approaches through online airport reviews. Sustainability, 14(4), 2151.
Batey, M., Hughes, D. J., Crick, L., & Toader, A. (2021). Designing creative spaces: An experimental examination of the effect of a nature poster on divergent thinking. Ergonomics, 64(1), 139–146.
Bergh, D. D., Boyd, B. K., Byron, K., Gove, S., & Ketchen Jr, D. J. (2022). What constitutes a methodological contribution? Journal of Management.
Berry, W. D. (1993). Understanding regression assumptions (Vol. 92). Sage.
Bokrantz, J., & Dul, J. (2022). Building and testing necessity theories in supply chain management. Journal of Supply Chain Management, in press.
Bouncken, R. B., Fredrich, V., & Kraus, S. (2020). Configurations of firm-level value capture in coopetition. Long Range Planning, 53(1), 101869.
Bouncken, R. B., Ratzmann, M., Barwinski, R., & Kraus, S. (2020). Coworking spaces: Empowerment for entrepreneurship and innovation in the digital and sharing economy. Journal of Business Research, 114, 102–110.
Bouquet, C., & Birkinshaw, J. (2008). Weight versus voice: How foreign subsidiaries gain attention from corporate headquarters. Academy of Management Journal, 51(3), 577–601.
Camitan IV, D. S., & Bajin, L. N. (2021). The importance of well-being on resiliency of filipino adults during the COVID-19 enhanced community quarantine: A necessary condition analysis. Frontiers in Psychology, 12, 908.
Chaurasia, S. S., Kaul, N., Yadav, B., & Shukla, D. (2020). Open innovation for sustainability through creating shared value-role of knowledge management system, openness and organizational structure. Journal of Knowledge Management, 24(10), 2491–2511.
Cheung, M. L., Leung, W. K., Aw, E. C.-X., & Koay, K. Y. (2022). “I follow what you post!”: The role of social media influencers’ content characteristics in consumers’ online brand-related activities (COBRAs). Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 66, 102940.
Costa, S., Daher, P., Neves, P., & Velez, M. J. (2021). The interplay between ethical leadership and supervisor organizational embodiment on organizational identification and extra-role performance. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 1–12.
Delgosha, M. S., Saheb, T., & Hajiheydari, N. (2021). Modelling the asymmetrical relationships between digitalisation and sustainable competitiveness: A cross-country configurational analysis. Information Systems Frontiers, 23, 1317–1337.
Della Corte, V., Aria, M., Del Gaudio, G., Barney, J. B., Cobanoglu, C., & Sepe, F. (2021). The relevance of relational capabilities in collaborative decisions. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 33(12), 4391–4417.
Deng, Q., Zhuang, G., Li, S., & Yang, H. (2022). A configurational analysis of cross-channel integration. Industrial Management & Data Systems, 122(7), 1686–1706.
Du, Y., & Kim, P. H. (2021). One size does not fit all: Strategy configurations, complex environments, and new venture performance in emerging economies. Journal of Business Research, 124, 272–285.
Dul, J. (2016a). Identifying single necessary conditions with NCA and fsQCA. Journal of Business Research, 69(4), 1516–1523.
Dul, J. (2016b). Necessary Condition Analysis (NCA) logic and methodology of “necessary but not sufficient” causality. Organizational Research Methods, 19(1), 10–52.
Dul, J. (2019). The physical environment and creativity. In J. C. Kaufman & R. J. Sternberg (Eds.), The Cambridge handbook of creativity (pp. 481–509). Cambridge University Press.
Dul, J. (2020). Conducting necessary condition analysis. Sage.
Dul, J. (2022a). Necessary Condition Analysis (NCA) and its diffusion. Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Business and Management, in press.
Dul, J. (2022b). Problematic applications of necessary condition analysis (NCA) in tourism and hospitality research. Tourism Management, 104616.
Dul, J., & Hak, T. (2008). Case study methodology in business research. Routledge.
Dul, J., Hauff, S., & Tóth, Z. (2021). Necessary condition analysis in marketing research. In R. Nunkoo, V. Teeroovengadum, & C. Ringle (Eds.), Handbook of research methods for marketing management. Edward Elgar Publishing.
Dul, J., Karwowski, M., & Kaufman, J. C. (2020). Necessary condition analysis in creativity research. In V. Dörfler & M. Stierand (Eds.), Handbook of research methods on creativity. Edward Elgar Publishing.
Dul, J., Van der Laan, E., & Kuik, R. (2020). A statistical significance test for necessary condition analysis. Organizational Research Methods, 23(2), 385–395.
Dul, J., Vis, B., & Goertz, G. (2021). Necessary condition analysis (NCA) does exactly what it should do when applied properly: A reply to a comment on NCA. Sociological Methods & Research, 50(2), 926–936.
Eggers, F., Risselada, H., Niemand, T., & Robledo, S. (2022). Referral campaigns for software startups: The impact of network characteristics on product adoption. Journal of Business Research, 145, 309–324.
Emmenegger, P. (2011). Job security regulations in western democracies: A fuzzy set analysis. European Journal of Political Research, 50(3), 336–364.
Farmaki, A., & Pappas, N. (2022). Poverty and tourism decision-making: A chaordic perspective. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 34, 1012–1036.
Farmaki, A., Pappas, N., Kvasova, O., & Stergiou, D. P. (2022). Hotel CSR and job satisfaction: A chaordic perspective. Tourism Management, 91, 104526.
Franke, H., & Foerstl, K. (2021). Goals, conflict, politics, and performance of cross-functional sourcing teams—results from a social team experiment. Journal of Business Logistics, 41(1), 6–30.
Frommeyer, B., Wagner, E., Hossiep, C. R., & Schewe, G. (2022). The utility of intention as a proxy for sustainable buying behavior–a necessary condition analysis. Journal of Business Research, 143, 201–213.
Fujita, T., & Kusano, H. (2020). Denial or history? Yasukuni visits as signaling. Journal of East Asian Studies, 20(2), 291–316.
Galton, F. (1886). Regression towards mediocrity in hereditary stature. The Journal of the Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland, 15, 246–263.
Gantert, T. M., Fredrich, V., Bouncken, R. B., & Kraus, S. (2022). The moral foundations of makerspaces as unconventional sources of innovation: A study of narratives and performance. Journal of Business Research, 139, 1564–1574.
Garg, N. (2017). Workplace spirituality and employee well-being: An empirical exploration. Journal of Human Values, 23(2), 129–147.
Glück, J., Weststrate, N. M., & Scherpf, A. (2022). Looking beyond linear: A closer examination of the relationship between wisdom and wellbeing. Journal of Happiness Studies, 1–29.
Golini, R., Deflorin, P., & Scherrer, M. (2016). Exploiting the potential of manufacturing network embeddedness: An OM perspective. International Journal of Operations & Production Management, 36(12), 1741–1768.
Greckhamer, T. (2016). CEO compensation in relation to worker compensation across countries: The configurational impact of country-level institutions. Strategic Management Journal, 37(4), 793–815.
Greco, A. M., Guilera, G., Maldonado-Murciano, L., Gómez-Benito, J., & Barrios, M. (2022). Proposing necessary but not sufficient conditions analysis as a complement of traditional effect size measures with an illustrative example. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 19(15), 9402.
Greene, W. H. (2012). Econometric analysis. 7th. edition. Pearson Education India.
Guilford, J. P. (1967). The nature of human intelligence. McGraw-Hill.
Harding, D. J., Fox, C., & Mehta, J. D. (2002). Studying rare events through qualitative case studies: Lessons from a study of rampage school shootings. Sociological Methods & Research, 31(2), 174–217.
Hauff, S., Guerci, M., Dul, J., & Rhee, H. van. (2021). Exploring necessary conditions in HRM research: Fundamental issues and methodological implications. Human Resource Management Journal, 31(1), 18–36.
Hayat, N., Salameh, A. A., Malik, H. A., & Yaacob, M. R. (2022). Exploring the adoption of wearable healthcare devices among the pakistani adults with dual analysis techniques. Technology in Society, 102015.
Hoeffding, W. (1952). The large-sample power of tests based on permutations of observations. The Annals of Mathematical Statistics, 169–192.
Hogan, R., & Hogan, J. (2007). The Hogan Personality Inventory manual (3rd ed.). Hogan Assessment Systems, Tulsa, OK.
Huang, Y., Zhang, M., Wang, J., Li, P., & Li, K. (2022). Psychological cognition and women’s entrepreneurship: A country-based comparison using fsQCA. Journal of Innovation & Knowledge, 7(3), 100223.
Jain, N. K., Bhaskar, K., & Jain, S. (2022). What drives adoption intention of electric vehicles in india? An integrated UTAUT model with environmental concerns, perceived risk and government support. Research in Transportation Business & Management, 100730.
Jaiswal, M., & Zane, L. J. (2022). Drivers of sustainable new technology diffusion in national markets: The case of electric vehicles. Thunderbird International Business Review, 64(1), 25–38.
Karwowski, M., Dul, J., Gralewski, J., Jauk, E., Jankowska, D. M., Gajda, A., Chruszczewski, M. H., & Benedek, M. (2016). Is creativity without intelligence possible? A necessary condition analysis. Intelligence, 57, 105–117.
Karwowski, M., Jankowska, D. M., Brzeski, A., Czerwonka, M., Gajda, A., Lebuda, I., & Beghetto, R. A. (2020). Delving into creativity and learning. Creativity Research Journal, 32(1), 4–16.
Kennedy, F. E. (1995). Randomization tests in econometrics. Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, 13(1), 85–94.
Klimas, P., Czakon, W., & Fredrich, V. (2022). Strategy frames in coopetition: An examination of coopetition entry factors in high-tech firms. European Management Journal.
Knol, W. H., Slomp, J., Schouteten, R. L., & Lauche, K. (2018). Implementing lean practices in manufacturing SMEs: Testing ‘critical success factors’ using necessary condition analysis. International Journal of Production Research, 56(11), 3955–3973.
Koay, K. Y., Cheah, C. W., & Chang, Y. X. (2022). A model of online food delivery service quality, customer satisfaction and customer loyalty: A combination of PLS-SEM and NCA approaches. British Food Journal.
Kobarg, S., Stumpf-Wollersheim, J., Schlägel, C., & Welpe, I. M. (2020). Green together? The effects of companies’ innovation collaboration with different partner types on ecological process and product innovation. Industry and Innovation, 27(9), 953–990.
Kopplin, C. S., Gantert, T. M., & Maier, J. V. (2022). Acceptance of matchmaking tools in coworking spaces: An extended perspective. Review of Managerial Science, 16, 1911–1943.
Kopplin, C. S., & Rausch, T. M. (2022). Above and beyond meat: The role of consumers’ dietary behavior for the purchase of plant-based food substitutes. Review of Managerial Science, 16, 1335–1364.
Kopplin, C. S., & Rösch, S. F. (2021). Equifinal causes of sustainable clothing purchase behavior: An fsQCA analysis among generation y. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 63, 102692.
Korman, J. V., Van Quaquebeke, N., & Tröster, C. (2022). Managers are less burned-out at the top: The roles of sense of power and self-efficacy at different hierarchy levels. Journal of Business and Psychology, 37, 151–171.
Kumar, D. (2021). Meteorological barriers to bike rental demands: A case of washington DC using NCA approach. Case Studies on Transport Policy, 9(2), 830–841.
Lee, W., & Jeong, C. (2020). Beyond the correlation between tourist eudaimonic and hedonic experiences: Necessary condition analysis. Current Issues in Tourism, 23(17), 2182–2194.
Lee, W., & Jeong, C. (2021). Distinctive roles of tourist eudaimonic and hedonic experiences on satisfaction and place attachment: Combined use of SEM and necessary condition analysis. Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Management, 47, 58–71.
Lee, W., Park, S., & Jeong, C. (2022). Repositioning risk perception as a necessary condition of travel decision: The case of north korea tourism. Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Management, 52, 252–263.
Lehmann, E. L., Romano, J. P., & Casella, G. (2005). Testing statistical hypotheses (3rd ed.). Springer.
Linder, C., Moulick, A. G., & Lechner, C. (2022). Necessary conditions and theory-method compatibility in quantitative entrepreneurship research. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 10422587221102103.
Liu, Y., Yu, C., & Damberg, S. (2022). Exploring the drivers and consequences of the “awe” emotion in outdoor sports–a study using the latest partial least squares structural equation modeling technique and necessary condition analysis. International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, 23(2), 278–294.
Loh, X.-M., Lee, V.-H., & Leong, L.-Y. (2022). Mobile-lizing continuance intention with the mobile expectation-confirmation model: An SEM-ANN-NCA approach. Expert Systems with Applications, 117659.
Lyu, V. C., Chin, W., Zhang, H., & Liu, V. (2021). Value added or overload? A study of the countervailing effects of non-core features on mobile banking apps. Journal of Consumer Behaviour.
Mackie, J. L. (1965). Causes and conditions. American Philosophical Quarterly, 2(4), 245–264.
Massu, J., Kuik, R., & Dul, J. (2020). Simulations with NCA. Rotterdam School of Management, Erasmus University.
Mazumder, S., & Garg, S. (2021). Decoding digital transformational outsourcing: The role of service providers’ capabilities. International Journal of Information Management, 58, 102295.
Mostafiz, M. I., Sambasivan, M., Goh, S.-K., & Ahmad, P. (2021). Configuring foreign market knowledge and opportunity recognition capabilities to predict the performance of export-manufacturing firms. Knowledge Management Research & Practice, 1–15.
Ortigueira-Sánchez, L. C., Welsh, D. H., & Stein, W. C. (2022). Innovation drivers for export performance. Sustainable Technology and Entrepreneurship, 1(2), 100013.
Pangarso, A., Winarno, A., Aulia, P., & Ritonga, D. A. (2022). Exploring the predictor and the consequence of digital organisational culture: A quantitative investigation using sufficient and necessity approach. Leadership & Organization Development Journal.
Pappas, N. (2021). COVID19: Holiday intentions during a pandemic. Tourism Management, 84, 104287.
Pappas, N., & Farmaki, A. (2022). Attributes attitudes and chaordic travel intentions during COVID-19. Current Issues in Tourism, 1–17.
Pappas, N., & Glyptou, K. (2021a). Accommodation decision-making during the COVID-19 pandemic: Complexity insights from greece. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 93, 102767.
Pappas, N., & Glyptou, K. (2021b). Risk-induced competitive productivity in times of recession: A chaordic tourism decision-making perspective. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 33, 2932–2949.
Pinochet, L. H. C., Souza, C. A. de, Viana, A. B. N., & Rodrı́guez-Abitia, G. (2022). Smart technologies in supermarket retail and their influence on citizens’ quality of life during the COVID-19 pandemic. Revista de Gestão, ahead-of-print.
Prakash, A., Jeyakumar Nathan, R., Kini, S., & Victor, V. (2022). Message framing and COVID-19 vaccine acceptance among millennials in south india. Plos One, 17(7), e0269487.
Ragin, C. C. (1987). The comparative method: Moving beyond qualitative and quantitative strategies. JSTOR.
Ragin, C. C. (2000). Fuzzy-set social science. University of Chicago Press.
Ragin, C. C. (2008). Redesigning social inquiry: Fuzzy sets and beyond. University of Chicago Press.
Renner, M., Lins, S., Söllner, M., Thiebes, S., & Sunyaev, A. (2022). Understanding the necessary conditions of multi-source trust transfer in artificial intelligence. 55th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS).
Richter, N. F., & Hauff, S. (2022). Necessary conditions in international business research–advancing the field with a new perspective on causality and data analysis. Journal of World Business, 57(5), 101310.
Richter, N. F., Martin, J., Hansen, S. V., Taras, V., & Alon, I. (2021). Motivational configurations of cultural intelligence, social integration, and performance in global virtual teams. Journal of Business Research, 129, 351–367.
Richter, N. F., Schlaegel, C., Bakel, M. V., & Engle, R. L. (2020). The expanded model of cultural intelligence and its explanatory power in the context of expatriation intention. European Journal of International Management, 14(2), 381–419.
Richter, N. F., Schubring, S., Hauff, S., Ringle, C. M., & Sarstedt, M. (2020). When predictors of outcomes are necessary: Guidelines for the combined use of PLS-SEM and NCA. Industrial Management & Data Systems, 120(12), 2243–2267.
Rohlfing, I., & Schneider, C. Q. (2013). Improving research on necessary conditions: Formalized case selection for process tracing after QCA. Political Research Quarterly, 220–235.
Saraf, P. K., Saha, S., & Anand, A. (2022). Supportive culture and job involvement in public sector: The mediating role of participation in decision making and organizational learning. International Journal of Public Sector Management.
Schneider, C. Q., & Wagemann, C. (2012). Set-theoretic methods for the social sciences: A guide to qualitative comparative analysis. Cambridge University Press.
Sharma, A., Dwivedi, R., Mariani, M. M., & Islam, T. (2022). Investigating the effect of advertising irritation on digital advertising effectiveness: A moderated mediation model. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 180, 121731.
Simar, L., & Wilson, P. W. (2008). Statistical inference in nonparametric frontier models: Recent developments and perspectives. In H. O. Fried, C. A. Knox Lovell, & S. S. Schmidt (Eds.), The measurement of productive efficiency and productivity growth. Oxford University Press.
Skarmeas, D., Leonidou, C. N., & Saridakis, C. (2014). Examining the role of CSR skepticism using fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis. Journal of Business Research, 67(9), 1796–1805.
Stek, K., & Schiele, H. (2021). How to train supply managers–necessary and sufficient purchasing skills leading to success. Journal of Purchasing and Supply Management, 27(4), 100700.
Sukhov, A., Olsson, L. E., & Friman, M. (2022). Necessary and sufficient conditions for attractive public transport: Combined use of PLS-SEM and NCA. Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, 158, 239–250.
Szucs, D., & Ioannidis, J. P. (2017). Empirical assessment of published effect sizes and power in the recent cognitive neuroscience and psychology literature. PLoS Biology, 15(3), e2000797.
Torres, P., & Godinho, P. (2022). Levels of necessity of entrepreneurial ecosystems elements. Small Business Economics, 59, 29–45.
Tóth, Z., Dul, J., & Li, C. (2019). Necessary condition analysis in tourism research. Annals of Tourism Research, 79.
Tuuli, M. M., & Rhee, H. van. (2021). How ability, motivation, and opportunity drive individual performance behaviors in projects: Tests of competing theories. Journal of Management in Engineering, 37(6), 04021070.
Tynan, M. C., Credé, M., & Harms, P. D. (2020). Are individual characteristics and behaviors necessary-but-not-sufficient conditions for academic success?: A demonstration of Dul’s (2016) necessary condition analysis. Learning and Individual Differences, 77, 101815.
Van der Valk, W., Sumo, R., Dul, J., & Schroeder, R. G. (2016). When are contracts and trust necessary for innovation in buyer-supplier relationships? A necessary condition analysis. Journal of Purchasing and Supply Management, 22(4), 266–277.
Vis, B., & Dul, J. (2018). Analyzing relationships of necessity not just in kind but also in degree: Complementing fsQCA with NCA. Sociological Methods & Research, 47(4), 872–899.
Wang, G., Zhang, H., Zeng, S., Meng, X., & Lin, H. (2022). Reporting on sustainable development: Configurational effects of top management team and corporate characteristics on environmental information disclosure. Corporate Social Responsibility and Environmental Management.
Wang, L., Jiang, M., Zhu, F., & Song, P. (2022). Untangling employee well-being in projects: A configural analysis of job stressors and psychological needs. Journal of Management in Engineering, 38(4), 04022026.
Wernerfelt, B. (1984). A resource-based view of the firm. Strategic Management Journal, 5(2), 171–180.
Yan, B., Liu, Y., Chen, B., Zhang, X., & Wu, L. (2022). What matters the most in curbing early COVID-19 mortality? A cross-country necessary condition analysis. Public Administration.
Yu, C., Cheah, J.-H., & Liu, Y. (2022). To stream or not to stream? Exploring factors influencing impulsive consumption through gastronomy livestreaming. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management.
Zahrai, K., Veer, E., Ballantine, P. W., Vries, H. P. de, & Prayag, G. (2022). Either you control social media or social media controls you: Understanding the impact of self-control on excessive social media use from the dual-system perspective. Journal of Consumer Affairs.