This book addresses a variety of advanced topics in Necessary Condition Analysis (NCA) to support users, readers and reviewers of the method. NCA is an emerging research method that is rapidly entering a variety of research fields in the social, medical and technical sciences. The entire method consists of three parts:

  • Using necessity logic for developing theory.

  • Data analysis for calculating necessity parameters.

  • Statistical testing for evaluating necessity parameters.

The book supplements existing methodological publications that describe NCA at the basic level (Dul, 2016, 2020; Dul, Van der Laan, et al., 2020). Also summaries of the method have appeared in different substantive fields including Human Resource Management (Hauff et al., 2021), Marketing (Dul et al., 2021), Tourism Management (Tóth et al., 2019), Education (Tynan et al., 2020), and Creativity (Dul, Karwowski, et al., 2020).

Because NCA is an emerging method, new insights are gained, and extensions are being developed. This book intends to provide the latest insights and developments of NCA. The topics are selected from interactions with the research community at conferences, workshops and in email exchanges. Some topics are extensively covered, others await elaboration.

As the NCA approach is developing, the content of the book is developing as well. The book is therefore an online book and has a version number: The first digit refers to major changes (e.g., substantive revisions of topics), the second to smaller changes (e.g., smaller extensions of topics, textual or graphical corrections and clarifications). Please, contact the author if you want to react on the book or wish to have new topics covered in it. Your contribution will be acknowledged.

The suggested reference to the book is Dul, J. (2021) Advances in Necessary Condition Analysis. Version 0.1. The book is hosted on https://bookdown.org/ncabook/advanced_nca2/.


Dul, J. (2016). Necessary condition analysis (NCA) logic and methodology of “necessary but not sufficient” causality. Organizational Research Methods, 19(1), 10–52. https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/1094428115584005
Dul, J. (2020). Conducting necessary condition analysis. Sage. https://uk.sagepub.com/en-gb/eur/conducting-necessary-condition-analysis-for-business-and-management-students/book262898
Dul, J., Hauff, S., & Tóth, Z. (2021). Necessary condition analysis in marketing research. In R. Nunkoo, V. Teeroovengadum, & C. Ringle (Eds.), Handbook of research methods for marketing management. Edward Elgar Publishing. https://www.e-elgar.com/shop/gbp/handbook-of-research-methods-for-marketing-management-9781788976947.html
Dul, J., Karwowski, M., & Kaufman, J. C. (2020). Necessary condition analysis in creativity research. In V. Dörfler & M. Stierand (Eds.), Handbook of research methods on creativity. Edward Elgar Publishing. https://www.e-elgar.com/shop/gbp/handbook-of-research-methods-on-creativity-9781786439642.html
Dul, J., Van der Laan, E., & Kuik, R. (2020). A statistical significance test for necessary condition analysis. Organizational Research Methods, 23(2), 385–395. https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/1094428118795272
Hauff, S., Guerci, M., Dul, J., & Rhee, H. van. (2021). Exploring necessary conditions in HRM research: Fundamental issues and methodological implications. Human Resource Management Journal, 31(1), 18–36. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/epdf/10.1111/1748-8583.12231
Tóth, Z., Dul, J., & Li, C. (2019). Necessary condition analysis in tourism research. Annals of Tourism Research, 79. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0160738319301781
Tynan, M. C., Credé, M., & Harms, P. D. (2020). Are individual characteristics and behaviors necessary-but-not-sufficient conditions for academic success?: A demonstration of Dul’s (2016) necessary condition analysis. Learning and Individual Differences, 77, 101815. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S1041608019301517