This book addresses a variety of advanced topics in Necessary Condition Analysis (NCA) to support users, readers and reviewers of the method. NCA is an emerging research method that is rapidly entering a variety of research fields in the social, medical and technical sciences. Since the start of NCA in 2016, the number of publications that apply NCA in Web of Science (Clarivate) ranked journals has rapidly increased to a total of 61 articles by the end of 2021 (see Figure 0.1).

Cumulative number of publications in Web of Science (Clarivate) ranked journals that apply NCA. 'Q' stands for the journal quality in terms of category journal rank by impact factor. Q1 = first quartile, etc. (Situation of 31 December 2021).

Figure 0.1: Cumulative number of publications in Web of Science (Clarivate) ranked journals that apply NCA. ‘Q’ stands for the journal quality in terms of category journal rank by impact factor. Q1 = first quartile, etc. (Situation of 31 December 2021).

About a quarter (26%) of the articles use NCA as the sole or primary research method (recent examples published in 2020 or later include Camitan IV & Bajin, 2021; Chaurasia et al., 2020; Kumar, 2021; Lee & Jeong, 2020; Tuuli & Rhee, 2021). Another about a quarter (23%) of the articles combine NCA with Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA) (e.g., Bouncken, Fredrich, et al., 2020; Bouncken, Ratzmann, et al., 2020; Delgosha et al., 2020; Du & Kim, 2021; Farmaki & Pappas, 2021; Gantert et al., 2022; Kopplin & Rösch, 2021; Mazumder & Garg, 2021; Pappas, 2021; Pappas & Glyptou, 2021b, 2021a; Torres & Godinho, 2021). About half (51%) of the articles are multi-method articles that apply NCA in combination with Multiple Linear Regression, MLR (e.g., Costa et al., 2021; Jain et al., 2021; Jaiswal & Zane, 2021; Karwowski et al., 2020; Klimas et al., 2021; Kobarg et al., 2020; Korman et al., 2021; Richter, Schlaegel, et al., 2020), Structural Equation Modeling, SEM (e.g., Franke & Foerstl, 2020; Lee & Jeong, 2021), or Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modeling, PLS-SEM (e.g., Della Corte et al., 2021; Kopplin et al., 2021; Kopplin & Rausch, 2021; Liu et al., 2021; Lyu et al., 2021; Richter et al., 2021).

Some articles that apply NCA did not find a necessary condition (Batey et al., 2021; Golini et al., 2016) but the majority identified at least one.

The entire NCA method consists of three parts:

  • Using necessity logic for developing theoretical statements (theory, hypotheses).

  • Data analysis for calculating necessity parameters.

  • Statistical testing for evaluating necessity parameters.

The book supplements existing methodological publications that describe NCA at the basic level (Dul, 2016, 2020; Dul, Van der Laan, et al., 2020). Also summaries of the method have appeared in different substantive fields including Human Resource Management (Hauff et al., 2021), Marketing (Dul et al., 2021), Tourism Management (Tóth et al., 2019), Education (Tynan et al., 2020), and Creativity (Dul, Karwowski, et al., 2020). Richter, Schubring, et al. (2020) provide guidelines for combining NCA with Partial Least Squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM).

Because NCA is an emerging method, new insights are gained, and extensions are being developed. This book intends to provide the latest insights and developments of NCA. The topics are selected from interactions with the research community at conferences, webinars, workshops and in email exchanges. Some topics are extensively covered, others await elaboration.

This book was first published online in 2021. As the NCA approach is developing, the content of the book is developing as well. The book will therefore remain an online book with a version number. Please, contact the author if you want to react on the book or wish to have new topics covered in it. Your contribution will be acknowledged.

The suggested reference to the book is Dul, J. (2021) Advances in Necessary Condition Analysis. The book is hosted on https://bookdown.org/ncabook/advanced_nca2/.


Batey, M., Hughes, D. J., Crick, L., & Toader, A. (2021). Designing creative spaces: An experimental examination of the effect of a nature poster on divergent thinking. Ergonomics, 64(1), 139–146. https://doi.org/10.1080/00140139.2020.1811398
Bouncken, R. B., Fredrich, V., & Kraus, S. (2020). Configurations of firm-level value capture in coopetition. Long Range Planning, 53(1), 101869. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lrp.2019.02.002
Bouncken, R. B., Ratzmann, M., Barwinski, R., & Kraus, S. (2020). Coworking spaces: Empowerment for entrepreneurship and innovation in the digital and sharing economy. Journal of Business Research, 114, 102–110. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2020.03.033
Camitan IV, D. S., & Bajin, L. N. (2021). The importance of well-being on resiliency of filipino adults during the COVID-19 enhanced community quarantine: A necessary condition analysis. Frontiers in Psychology, 12, 908. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2021.558930
Chaurasia, S. S., Kaul, N., Yadav, B., & Shukla, D. (2020). Open innovation for sustainability through creating shared value-role of knowledge management system, openness and organizational structure. Journal of Knowledge Management. https://doi.org/10.1108/JKM-04-2020-0319
Costa, S., Daher, P., Neves, P., & Velez, M. J. (2021). The interplay between ethical leadership and supervisor organizational embodiment on organizational identification and extra-role performance. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 1–12. https://doi.org/10.1002/tie.22243
Delgosha, M. S., Saheb, T., & Hajiheydari, N. (2020). Modelling the asymmetrical relationships between digitalisation and sustainable competitiveness: A cross-country configurational analysis. Information Systems Frontiers, 1–21. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10796-020-10029-0
Della Corte, V., Aria, M., Del Gaudio, G., Barney, J. B., Cobanoglu, C., & Sepe, F. (2021). The relevance of relational capabilities in collaborative decisions. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJCHM-01-2021-0037
Du, Y., & Kim, P. H. (2021). One size does not fit all: Strategy configurations, complex environments, and new venture performance in emerging economies. Journal of Business Research, 124, 272–285. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2020.11.059
Dul, J. (2016). Necessary condition analysis (NCA) logic and methodology of “necessary but not sufficient” causality. Organizational Research Methods, 19(1), 10–52. https://doi.org/10.1177/1094428115584005
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Dul, J., Hauff, S., & Tóth, Z. (2021). Necessary condition analysis in marketing research. In R. Nunkoo, V. Teeroovengadum, & C. Ringle (Eds.), Handbook of research methods for marketing management. Edward Elgar Publishing. https://www.e-elgar.com/shop/gbp/handbook-of-research-methods-for-marketing-management-9781788976947.html
Dul, J., Karwowski, M., & Kaufman, J. C. (2020). Necessary condition analysis in creativity research. In V. Dörfler & M. Stierand (Eds.), Handbook of research methods on creativity. Edward Elgar Publishing. https://www.e-elgar.com/shop/gbp/handbook-of-research-methods-on-creativity-9781786439642.html
Dul, J., Van der Laan, E., & Kuik, R. (2020). A statistical significance test for necessary condition analysis. Organizational Research Methods, 23(2), 385–395. https://doi.org/10.1177/1094428118795272
Farmaki, A., & Pappas, N. (2021). Poverty and tourism decision-making: A chaordic perspective. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJCHM-07-2021-0859
Franke, H., & Foerstl, K. (2020). Goals, conflict, politics, and performance of cross-functional sourcing teams—results from a social team experiment. Journal of Business Logistics, 41(1), 6–30. https://doi.org/10.1111/jbl.12225
Gantert, T. M., Fredrich, V., Bouncken, R. B., & Kraus, S. (2022). The moral foundations of makerspaces as unconventional sources of innovation: A study of narratives and performance. Journal of Business Research, 139, 1564–1574. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2021.10.076
Golini, R., Deflorin, P., & Scherrer, M. (2016). Exploiting the potential of manufacturing network embeddedness: An OM perspective. International Journal of Operations & Production Management. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJOPM-11-2014-0559
Hauff, S., Guerci, M., Dul, J., & Rhee, H. van. (2021). Exploring necessary conditions in HRM research: Fundamental issues and methodological implications. Human Resource Management Journal, 31(1), 18–36. https://doi.org/10.1111/1748-8583.12231
Jain, N. K., Bhaskar, K., & Jain, S. (2021). What drives adoption intention of electric vehicles in india? An integrated UTAUT model with environmental concerns, perceived risk and government support. Research in Transportation Business & Management, 100730. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rtbm.2021.100730
Jaiswal, M., & Zane, L. J. (2021). Drivers of sustainable new technology diffusion in national markets: The case of electric vehicles. Thunderbird International Business Review. https://doi.org/10.1002/tie.22243
Karwowski, M., Jankowska, D. M., Brzeski, A., Czerwonka, M., Gajda, A., Lebuda, I., & Beghetto, R. A. (2020). Delving into creativity and learning. Creativity Research Journal, 32(1), 4–16. https://doi.org/10.1080/10400419.2020.1712165
Klimas, P., Czakon, W., & Fredrich, V. (2021). Strategy frames in coopetition: An examination of coopetition entry factors in high-tech firms. European Management Journal. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.emj.2021.04.005
Kobarg, S., Stumpf-Wollersheim, J., Schlägel, C., & Welpe, I. M. (2020). Green together? The effects of companies’ innovation collaboration with different partner types on ecological process and product innovation. Industry and Innovation, 27(9), 953–990. https://doi.org/10.1080/13662716.2020.1713733
Kopplin, C. S., Gantert, T. M., & Maier, J. V. (2021). Acceptance of matchmaking tools in coworking spaces: An extended perspective. Review of Managerial Science, 1–33. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11846-021-00498-1
Kopplin, C. S., & Rausch, T. M. (2021). Above and beyond meat: The role of consumers’ dietary behavior for the purchase of plant-based food substitutes. Review of Managerial Science, 1–30. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11846-021-00480-x
Kopplin, C. S., & Rösch, S. F. (2021). Equifinal causes of sustainable clothing purchase behavior: An fsQCA analysis among generation y. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 63, 102692. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jretconser.2021.102692
Korman, J. V., Van Quaquebeke, N., & Tröster, C. (2021). Managers are less burned-out at the top: The roles of sense of power and self-efficacy at different hierarchy levels. Journal of Business and Psychology, 1–21. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10869-021-09733-8
Kumar, D. (2021). Meteorological barriers to bike rental demands: A case of washington DC using NCA approach. Case Studies on Transport Policy, 9(2), 830–841. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cstp.2021.04.002
Lee, W., & Jeong, C. (2020). Beyond the correlation between tourist eudaimonic and hedonic experiences: Necessary condition analysis. Current Issues in Tourism, 23(17), 2182–2194. https://doi.org/10.1080/13683500.2019.1611747
Lee, W., & Jeong, C. (2021). Distinctive roles of tourist eudaimonic and hedonic experiences on satisfaction and place attachment: Combined use of SEM and necessary condition analysis. Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Management, 47, 58–71. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhtm.2021.02.012
Liu, Y., Yu, C., & Damberg, S. (2021). Exploring the drivers and consequences of the “awe” emotion in outdoor sports–a study using the latest partial least squares structural equation modeling technique and necessary condition analysis. International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJSMS-12-2020-0232
Lyu, V. C., Chin, W., Zhang, H., & Liu, V. (2021). Value added or overload? A study of the countervailing effects of non-core features on mobile banking apps. Journal of Consumer Behaviour. https://doi.org/10.1002/cb.2003
Mazumder, S., & Garg, S. (2021). Decoding digital transformational outsourcing: The role of service providers’ capabilities. International Journal of Information Management, 58, 102295. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijinfomgt.2020.102295
Pappas, N. (2021). COVID19: Holiday intentions during a pandemic. Tourism Management, 84, 104287. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2021.104287
Pappas, N., & Glyptou, K. (2021a). Accommodation decision-making during the COVID-19 pandemic: Complexity insights from greece. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 93, 102767. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhm.2020.102767
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Richter, N. F., Schubring, S., Hauff, S., Ringle, C. M., & Sarstedt, M. (2020). When predictors of outcomes are necessary: Guidelines for the combined use of PLS-SEM and NCA. Industrial Management & Data Systems. https://doi.org/10.1108/IMDS-11-2019-0638
Torres, P., & Godinho, P. (2021). Levels of necessity of entrepreneurial ecosystems elements. Small Business Economics, 1–17. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11187-021-00515-3
Tóth, Z., Dul, J., & Li, C. (2019). Necessary condition analysis in tourism research. Annals of Tourism Research, 79. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.annals.2019.102821
Tuuli, M. M., & Rhee, H. van. (2021). How ability, motivation, and opportunity drive individual performance behaviors in projects: Tests of competing theories. Journal of Management in Engineering, 37(6), 04021070. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)ME.1943-5479.0000969
Tynan, M. C., Credé, M., & Harms, P. D. (2020). Are individual characteristics and behaviors necessary-but-not-sufficient conditions for academic success?: A demonstration of Dul’s (2016) necessary condition analysis. Learning and Individual Differences, 77, 101815. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lindif.2019.101815