## R Exercise Week 6

**Task:** Test whether observed heterozygosity of *Pulsatilla vulgaris* adults depends on census population size. Fit a model at the individual level where you include a random effect for population.

**Hints:**

**Load packages**:- Please install the package
`inbreedR`

(to calculate individual measures of heterozygosity) from CRAN, if it is not yet installed. - You may want to load the packages
`dplyr`

and`ggplot2`

. Alternatively, you can use`::`

to call functions from packages.

- Please install the package
**Import data and extract adults**:- Use the code below to import the data.
- Use
`dplyr::filter`

to extract adults with`OffID == 0`

.

**Calculate multilocus heterozygosity**: Use package`inbreedR`

to calculate multilocus heterozygosity for each adult.- Use the function
`inbreedR::convert_raw(x)`

, where x is the matrix of genotypes only (no ID or other non-genetic data), with two columns per locus. Check the help file of the function`convert_raw`

. - Use the function
`inbreedR::MLH`

to calculate observed heterozygosity for each individual. - Add the result as a variable
`het`

to the adults dataset.

Example code from

`inbreedR::MLH`

help file:`data(mouse_msats) genotypes <- convert_raw(mouse_msats) het <- MLH(genotypes)`

- Use the function
**Add population-level data**:Import the file “pulsatilla_population.csv” with the code below.

Do a left-join to add the data to your adults dataset.

Check the dataset.

**Scatterplot with regression line**: Use ggplot2 to create a scatterplot of adult heterozygosity against census population size (`population.size`

), with a regression line.**Fit linear mixed model**: Adapt code from section 3.c to perform a regression of individual-level observed heterozygosity (response variable) on census population size (predictor), including population as a random effect. Fit the model with REML and print a summary.**Test fixed effect**: Adapt code from section 2.f to test the fixed effect with function`car::Anova`

.**Check residual plots**: Adapt code from section 2.d to create residual plots.

**Questions:** There is one influential point in the regression analysis:

- What was the direction of the relationship, did heterozygosity increase or decrease with census population size?
- Was the fixed effect statistically significant?
- Was the model valid, or was there a problem with the residual plots?
- What would be the main issue, and what remedy could you suggest?