Chapter 1 Welcome! :)

You are reading the lecture notes of the R labs for the Statistics and Probability for Economics and Finance (SPEF) course at University of Bergamo (academic year 2022/23) taught by Prof. Raffaele Argiento, Prof. Michela Cameletti and Prof. Tommaso Lando. R is a great programming language especially designed for statistical analysis and data visualisation.

The SPEF R labs are designed for those who don’t have any programming background. It will be a step-by-step path; at the end you will have the basic R knowledge for analysing economics and financial time series.

Enjoy the journey!

In the following lecture notes, this font (with grey background) represents R code. The following is an example of R code with the corresponding output.

print("Hello SPEF World!")
## [1] "Hello SPEF World!"

These notes are written in RStudio by using bookdown ( For errors, typos, suggestions, … write to .