Statistics and Probability for Economics and Finance - 2022/23
You are reading the lecture notes of the R labs for the Statistics and Probability for Economics and Finance (SPEF) course at University of Bergamo (academic year 2022/23) taught by Prof. Raffaele Argiento, Prof. Michela Cameletti and Prof. Tommaso Lando.
R is a great programming language especially designed for statistical analysis and data visualisation.
The SPEF R labs are designed for those who don’t have any programming background. It will be a step-by-step path; at the end you will have the basic
R knowledge for analysing economics and financial time series.
Enjoy the journey!
In the following lecture notes,
this font (with grey background) represents R code. The following is an example of R code with the corresponding output.
print("Hello SPEF World!")
##  "Hello SPEF World!"