E Qualitative item characteristics

Item reading level information was performed via the packages quanteda version 2.1.2 (Benoit et al., 2020) and quanteda.textstats version 0.94.1 (Benoit et al., 2021) in R version 4.0.5 (2021-03-31) (R Core Team, 2021). Two indices were investigated: “Flesch-Kincaid” is the same grade level index that’s currently used by Microsoft Word (Kincaid et al., 1975) whereas “Dale.Chall” reflects Nwd [“difficulty” of words; Chall & Dale (1995)]. These indices are primarily influenced by two qualitative characteristics: Nwf, which is the number of words matching the Dale-Chall List of 3000 “familiar words,” and Nwd, which is the number of “difficult” words not matching the Dale-Chall list of “familiar” words.

The average Flesch-Kincaied (e.g., reading grade) for our 36 candidate pilot items was 6.2 (sd = 3.04). The average Dale-Chall index was 38.61 (sd = 11.11).

E.1 Frequency distributions by dimension

E.2 Tables of qualitative indices

Table E.1: Organized by Flesch-Kincaid aka Reading Level
document Substantive Attitudinal Flesch.Kincaid Dale.Chall
36 This organization provides the resources necessary for me to successfully perform my job Dedication Behavioral 14.0 11
35 I speak positively about this organization to others. Dedication Behavioral 12.6 35
33 I make valued contributions to the organization Dedication Behavioral 12.4 32
34 I embrace challenging situations at work. Dedication Behavioral 10.3 12
31 I feel proud of my accomplishments within this organization Dedication Affective 10.2 26
28 This organization challenges me to work at my full potential Dedication Cognitive 9.6 29
24 If I notice my energy level is low, I take corrective steps to re-energize. Vigor Behavioral 8.3 28
16 I’m able to maintain good levels of energy throughout the workday Vigor Cognitive 8.0 22
1 I’m able to concentrate on my work without distractions Absorption Cognitive 7.6 37
4 I find it difficult to mentally disconnect from work Absorption Cognitive 7.6 26
12 I never allow distractions to interfere with my work Absorption Behavioral 7.6 37
18 Most days I feel enthusiastic about starting my work day. Vigor Affective 7.2 48
15 I would rather direct my focus toward a work task than a personal task Vigor Cognitive 6.7 41
27 I often think about finding another job (r) Dedication Cognitive 6.7 47
22 I express enthusiasm for my job while at work Vigor Behavioral 6.3 37
26 I believe this company cares about my career goals Dedication Cognitive 6.3 47
29 I am proud to be a member of this organization. Dedication Affective 6.0 48
30 I feel supported by my supervisor when I fail at a task Dedication Affective 5.8 40
14 Thinking about work saps my energy (r) Vigor Cognitive 5.7 32
17 I enjoy spending time completing my job tasks. Vigor Affective 5.2 47
6 Most days, I feel happiest when the workday is soon to be complete (r) Absorption Affective 5.0 34
2 I have a hard time detaching mentally from my work Absorption Cognitive 4.8 38
7 I am happiest when I am immersed in a project Absorption Affective 4.8 38
13 I devote my full attention to my work tasks throughout the day Vigor Cognitive 4.8 40
5 I enjoy thinking about work even when I’m not at work Absorption Affective 4.8 56
19 I feel motivated to go beyond what is asked of me Vigor Affective 4.8 39
3 Time passes quickly while I’m working Absorption Cognitive 4.4 60
25 I plan my future with this company. Dedication Cognitive 4.0 46
32 My job makes me feel like I’m part of something meaningful Dedication Affective 3.7 48
9 I devote more time than is expected of me. Absorption Behavioral 3.6 47
8 I love starting my workday. Absorption Affective 2.9 42
10 I have to be reminded to take breaks while I’m at work Absorption Behavioral 2.9 56
11 I never miss a work deadline. Absorption Behavioral 2.5 44
20 This job drains my energy (r) Vigor Affective 2.5 28
21 When work is slow I find ways to be productive. Vigor Behavioral 2.5 48
23 I try my best to perform well at work Vigor Behavioral 1.0 47
Table E.1: Organized by Dale Chall aka includes Difficult Words
document Substantive Attitudinal Flesch.Kincaid Dale.Chall
36 This organization provides the resources necessary for me to successfully perform my job Dedication Behavioral 14.0 11
34 I embrace challenging situations at work. Dedication Behavioral 10.3 12
16 I’m able to maintain good levels of energy throughout the workday Vigor Cognitive 8.0 22
4 I find it difficult to mentally disconnect from work Absorption Cognitive 7.6 26
31 I feel proud of my accomplishments within this organization Dedication Affective 10.2 26
20 This job drains my energy (r) Vigor Affective 2.5 28
24 If I notice my energy level is low, I take corrective steps to re-energize. Vigor Behavioral 8.3 28
28 This organization challenges me to work at my full potential Dedication Cognitive 9.6 29
14 Thinking about work saps my energy (r) Vigor Cognitive 5.7 32
33 I make valued contributions to the organization Dedication Behavioral 12.4 32
6 Most days, I feel happiest when the workday is soon to be complete (r) Absorption Affective 5.0 34
35 I speak positively about this organization to others. Dedication Behavioral 12.6 35
1 I’m able to concentrate on my work without distractions Absorption Cognitive 7.6 37
12 I never allow distractions to interfere with my work Absorption Behavioral 7.6 37
22 I express enthusiasm for my job while at work Vigor Behavioral 6.3 37
2 I have a hard time detaching mentally from my work Absorption Cognitive 4.8 38
7 I am happiest when I am immersed in a project Absorption Affective 4.8 38
19 I feel motivated to go beyond what is asked of me Vigor Affective 4.8 39
13 I devote my full attention to my work tasks throughout the day Vigor Cognitive 4.8 40
30 I feel supported by my supervisor when I fail at a task Dedication Affective 5.8 40
15 I would rather direct my focus toward a work task than a personal task Vigor Cognitive 6.7 41
8 I love starting my workday. Absorption Affective 2.9 42
11 I never miss a work deadline. Absorption Behavioral 2.5 44
25 I plan my future with this company. Dedication Cognitive 4.0 46
17 I enjoy spending time completing my job tasks. Vigor Affective 5.2 47
27 I often think about finding another job (r) Dedication Cognitive 6.7 47
9 I devote more time than is expected of me. Absorption Behavioral 3.6 47
23 I try my best to perform well at work Vigor Behavioral 1.0 47
26 I believe this company cares about my career goals Dedication Cognitive 6.3 47
18 Most days I feel enthusiastic about starting my work day. Vigor Affective 7.2 48
21 When work is slow I find ways to be productive. Vigor Behavioral 2.5 48
29 I am proud to be a member of this organization. Dedication Affective 6.0 48
32 My job makes me feel like I’m part of something meaningful Dedication Affective 3.7 48
10 I have to be reminded to take breaks while I’m at work Absorption Behavioral 2.9 56
5 I enjoy thinking about work even when I’m not at work Absorption Affective 4.8 56
3 Time passes quickly while I’m working Absorption Cognitive 4.4 60