8 Variables & Conceptualization

Clear and consistent concept is the beginning of all discourse and communication. Like previous measurement chapter, this topic also can be traced back to Plato and Socrates. In one of Plato’s Socratic dialogue

First, that nothing can become greater or less, either in number or magnitude, while remaining equal to itself … Secondly, that without addition or subtraction there is no increase or diminution of anything, but only equality … Thirdly, that what was not before cannot be afterwards, without becoming and having become.

—Plato, Theaetetus, 155

Three traditional laws: identity, non-contradiction, excluded middle. Conceptualization start from those 3 laws of logic, and develop to new level. Besides description, we using quantitative method to define one concept.

8.1 Core, Periphery, Hierarchy

8.2 Objective, Subjective, Interactive, Network

8.3 Numerical, Categorical, Binomial