A note from the authors: Some of the information and instructions in this book are now out of date because of changes to Hugo and the blogdown package. If you have suggestions for improving this book, please file an issue in our GitHub repository. Thanks for your patience while we work to update the book, and please stay tuned for the revised version!
— Yihui, Amber, & Alison
If you decide not to follow our recommendation to use Netlify to deploy your website, we should warn you that the approach in this section will require substantial knowledge about GIT, GitHub, Travis CI (https://travis-ci.org), and the Linux command line, which we will leave for you to learn on your own. The major advantage of publishing via Travis CI is that you can compile all your Rmd posts on Travis CI (on the cloud) instead of your local computer.
In case you are not familiar with Travis, it is a service to continuously check your software in a virtual machine whenever you push changes to GitHub. It is primarily for testing software, but since you can run a lot of commands in its virtual machine, you can certainly use the virtual machine to do other things, e.g., install R and the blogdown package to build websites. Before I show you how, I’d like to mention two issues that you should be aware of:
Personally, I prefer taking a look at the output in GIT to see the changes when I have any output that is dynamically computed from R, so that I know for sure what I’m going to publish exactly. With Travis, it is somewhat unpredictable because it is fully automatic and you do not have a chance to see the new content or results to be published. There are many factors that could affect building the site: the R version, availability of certain R packages, system dependencies, and network connection, etc.
The time required to compile all Rmd files may be very long and cause timeouts on Travis, depending on how time-consuming your R code is. There is a caching mechanism in blogdown to speed up the building of your site (see Section D.9), and if you use Travis to build your website, you will not benefit from this caching mechanism unless you take advantage of Travis’s caching. You have to cache the directories
blogdown/, but Travis’s cache is a little fragile in my experience. Sometimes the cache may be purged for unknown reasons. What is more, you cannot directly cache
static/, because Travis clones your repository before restoring the cache, which means old files from the cached
static/may overwrite new files you pushed to GitHub.
The second problem can be solved, but I do not want to explain how in this book since the solution is too involved. If you really want to use Travis to build your website and run into this problem, you may file an issue to the GitHub repository https://github.com/yihui/travis-blogdown. In fact, this repository is a minimal example I created to show how to build a website on Travis and publish to GitHub Pages.
The Travis documentation shows how to deploy a site to GitHub Pages: https://docs.travis-ci.com/user/deployment/pages/, but does not show how to build a site. Here is the Travis configuration file,
.travis.yml, for the
language: r dist: xenial latex: false branches: only: - master cache: packages: yes directories: - $HOME/bin script: - Rscript -e 'blogdown::install_hugo()' - Rscript -e 'blogdown::build_site()' deploy: provider: pages skip_cleanup: true github_token: $GITHUB_TOKEN on: branch: master local_dir: public fqdn: travis-blogdown.yihui.name
The key is that we install Hugo via
blogdown::install_hugo() and build the site via
blogdown::build_site(). To trick Travis into building this repository like an R package, you must have a
DESCRIPTION file in the repository, otherwise your website will not be built.
Package: placeholder Type: Website Title: Does not matter. Version: 0.0.1 Imports: blogdown Remotes: rstudio/blogdown
There are a few more things to explain and emphasize in
branchesoption specifies that only changes in the
masterbranch will trigger building on Travis.
cacheoption specifies all R packages to be cached, so the next time it will be faster to build the site (R packages do not need to be reinstalled from source). The
bin/directory in the home directory is also cached because Hugo is installed there, and the next time Hugo does not need to be reinstalled.
deployoption, there is an environment variable named
GITHUB_TOKEN, and I have specified its value to be a GitHub personal access token via the Travis settings of this repository, so that Travis will be able to write to my repository after the website is built. The option
onspecifies that the deployment will only occur when the
masterbranch is built. The
local_diroption is the publish directory, which should default to
publicin Hugo. By default, the website is pushed to the
gh-pagesbranch of this repository. The
fqdnoption specifies the custom domain of the website. I have set a CNAME record (see Appendix C) to point
yihui.github.io, so that GitHub is able to serve this website through this domain (in fact, Travis will write a
CNAMEfile containing the domain to the
If you use the
username.github.io repository on GitHub, the website must be pushed to its
master branch instead of
gh-pages (this is the only exception). I recommend that you separate the source repository and the output repository. For example, you may have a
website-source repository with the same settings as the above
.travis.yml except for two new options under
deploy: ... repo: username/username.github.io target_branch: master
This means the website will be pushed to the
master branch of the repository
username/username.github.io (remember to replace
username with your actual username).
You can also deploy your website to Amazon S3, and the setup on the R side is very similar to what we have introduced for GitHub Pages. The only difference is in the last step, where you change the target from GitHub Pages to Amazon S3. For more information, please see the documentation on Travis: https://docs.travis-ci.com/user/deployment/s3/.