## 6.1 Arithmetic operations on vectors

So far, you know how to do basic arithmetic operations like + (addition), - (subtraction), and * (multiplication) on scalars. Thankfully, R makes it just as easy to do arithmetic operations on numeric vectors:

a <- c(1, 2, 3, 4, 5)
b <- c(10, 20, 30, 40, 50)

a + 100
##  101 102 103 104 105
a + b
##  11 22 33 44 55
(a + b) / 10
##  1.1 2.2 3.3 4.4 5.5

If you do an operation on a vector with a scalar, R will apply the scalar to each element in the vector. For example, if you have a vector and want to add 10 to each element in the vector, just add the vector and scalar objects. Let’s create a vector with the integers from 1 to 10, and add then add 100 to each element:

# Take the integers from 1 to 10, then add 100 to each
1:10 + 100
##   101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110

As you can see, the result is [1 + 100, 2 + 100, … 10 + 100]. Of course, we could have made this vector with the a:b function like this: 101:110, but you get the idea.

Of course, this doesn’t only work with addition…oh no. Let’s try division, multiplication, and exponents. Let’s create a vector a with the integers from 1 to 10 and then change it up:

a <- 1:10
a / 100
##   0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07 0.08 0.09 0.10
a ^ 2
##     1   4   9  16  25  36  49  64  81 100

Again, if you perform an algebraic operation on a vector with a scalar, R will just apply the operation to every element in the vector.

### 6.1.1 Basic math with multiple vectors

What if you want to do some operation on two vectors of the same length? Easy. Just apply the operation to both vectors. R will then combine them element–by–element. For example, if you add the vector [1, 2, 3, 4, 5] to the vector [5, 4, 3, 2, 1], the resulting vector will have the values [1 + 5, 2 + 4, 3 + 3, 4 + 2, 5 + 1] = [6, 6, 6, 6, 6]:

c(1, 2, 3, 4, 5) + c(5, 4, 3, 2, 1)
##  6 6 6 6 6

Let’s create two vectors a and b where each vector contains the integers from 1 to 5. We’ll then create two new vectors ab.sum, the sum of the two vectors and ab.diff, the difference of the two vectors, and ab.prod, the product of the two vectors:

a <- 1:5
b <- 1:5

ab.sum <- a + b
ab.diff <- a - b
ab.prod <- a * b

ab.sum
##   2  4  6  8 10
ab.diff
##  0 0 0 0 0
ab.prod
##   1  4  9 16 25

### 6.1.2 Ex: Pirate Bake Sale Let’s say you had a bake sale on your ship where 5 pirates sold both pies and cookies. You could record the total number of pies and cookies sold in two vectors:

pies <- c(3, 6, 2, 10, 4)
cookies <- c(70, 40, 40, 200, 60)

Now, let’s say you want to know how many total items each pirate sold. You can do this by just adding the two vectors:

total.sold <- pies + cookies
total.sold
##   73  46  42 210  64

Crazy.