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The data are publicly available and collected for a team of researchers sponsored by an intergovernmental organization (World Bank) and some other governmental and non-governmental organizations (the Spanish Impact Evaluation Fund, the Gender Action Plan, and the Turkish Labor Agency (İŞKUR)). The study sample included 5902 individuals randomly and representatively sampled among unemployed people in Turkey. A subset(all individuals but not all variables) of the original data can be accessed by following the steps in section 6.1.4. This subset is named as dataWBT (data World Bank Turkey).
The dataWBT include the following variables;
- id : an identification number for each individual
- treatment: Vocational training program, 1 = treatment, 2=control
- gender: male, female , unknown
- course taken: 51 different courses, from accounting professionalist to waiter
- city: participants’ current residence
- education: participants’ highest degree
- father’s education level : father’s highest degree
- mother’s education level : mother’s highest degree
- item 1 - 6 : Six items to measure gender attitudes, 4 point Likert scale 1:Strongly Disagree, 2: Disagree, 3: Agree, 4: Strongly Agree. Higher scores imply higher level of sexism.
- higher Education: 1 for college education or higher, 0 for high school or lower
- age : participants’ age by 2010
- total house income: Annual income (Turkish Lira) from 12 different sources
- total house member: Number of household members
- income per person : total house income/total house member
- gender attitudes score: mean of available scores for item 2 to 6
- income sources: 12 different source of income
The gender attitudes scale in the data included 6 items, missing data were rare, only the question number six had a non-response rate of 2.5% , all of the remaining questions had less than 1% non-response. Each item is a 4-point Likert scale; strongly disagree, disagree, agree and strongly agree.
The validity and reliability studies (Gök and Aydın, in press) and prior use of the scale revealed that these 6 items can be scored in two different scenarios;
In the first scenario a one-factor solution was tested and it has been concluded that items 2 to 6 might share an underlying construct. Hence, the average of these five items1 is named as the general gender attitudes score. Higher scores indicate gender discrimination against women.
In the second scenario a two-factor solution was tested. The average of item 1 (reverse coded), 4 and 5 is named as gender equality The average of item 2, 3 and 6 is named as public approval perspective . In both, higher scores are not desired.
Gender Attitudes Questions Chosen by World Bank
- Both the husband and wife should contribute to household income.
- A university education is more important for a boy than for a girl.
- A married woman should not work outside the home unless forced to do so by economic circumstances.
- It is demeaning to a man for his wife to work.
- Women could express their opinions in the family but never in public.
- A wife must always obey her husband.
This work is funded by the Scientific Research Projects Unit of Recep Tayyip Erdoğan University, Turkey. Project ID: BAP-53005-601.
This project was rejected by TUBITAK (Turkish Scientific and Technological Research Council) on February 2016. Application ID: 1059B191501734.