3.20 Spiral of silence

  • a political science and mass communication theory

  • members’ fear of isolation due to differences in opinions leads to silence

  • Media affects

    • dominant idea

    • how one perceives dominant idea, dominant cultures

  • One’s perceived social environment may differ from reality

Endowment effect

Endowment effect is not the result of loss aversion, but rather fear of getting a bad deal (i.e., being a sucker in the market) (Weaver and Frederick 2012). More specifically, people will have a salient reference price when they sell their products (e.g., could be market price). Hence, the price with which he originally paid for the products does not matter much.


Weaver, Ray, and Shane Frederick. 2012. “A Reference Price Theory of the Endowment Effect.” Journal of Marketing Research 49 (5): 696–707. https://doi.org/10.1509/jmr.09.0103.