4.13 Regulatory Focus Theory
According to self-regulatory focus, people have either promotion focus (presence of desirable outcomes) or prevention focus (absence of undesirable outcomes). Promotion focus people tend to focus on growth, aspirations, achievement, while presentation focus people have an orientation towards safety or vigilance (Lee and Aaker 2004). Hence, advertisers (promotion-focused or prevention-focused) can create messages depend on their audience (Aaker and Lee 2001). Regulatory focus can depend on culture (western is more promotion focus as compared to eastern more prevention focus (Lee, Aaker, and Gardner 2000)), products (home-security or massage chairs), environment (e.g., 2000 bubble bursts induce investors to be more prevention-focused).