10 Socialization

(Kramer 2011)

According to (Maanen and Schein 1979), socialization is defined as “the process by which an individual acquires the social knowledge and skills necessary to assume an organizational role.”

Levels of analysis:

  • Single Organization Voluntary Socialization: Individual voluntary membership:

    • Membership negotiation
  • How individuals’ multiple group memberships interact to affect their socialization

  • how the multiple group memberships of other influence the socialization process of an individual.

Personally, I’d not define the way the author structured the research as levels of analysis because they are all at the individual level.

Personalization: new members try to change aspects of the organization to fit their needs.


  • Reconnaissance communication: is when prospective members to obtain info about the organization.

Membership statuses are fluid, and transitory, overlapping

(Myers et al. 2010)

Vocational Anticipatory Socialization (VAS) tries to predict individual’s interests and their career pursuit using socialization theory.

Factors affecting the number of students choosing STEM field:

  • Social factors
  • Personal interest

Sources of VAS:

  • Family members: especially parents, socialize their children to various notions of jobs and careers.
  • Educational Institution: learn about power and social skills which later affects career choice.
  • Part-time jobs: good start for students to be socialize into the career network.
  • Peers: influence expectation of a future career.
  • Media: socialize value and expectations about careers.

Career Development Models :

  1. life-space model (Vondracek, Lerner, and Schulenberg 2019):
  • Physiological factor (e.g., country of origin, genetics).
  • Psychological characteristics: (e.g., self-concept, development of intelligence, values, needs, interests, ability, aptitudes).
  • Socioeconomic environments

5 life stages:

  • Growth (0-14)
  • Exploration (15-24)
  • Establishment (25-44)
  • Maintenance (45-64)
  • Decline (after 65)

9 roles:

  • Child
  • Leisurite
  • Citizen
  • Worker
  • Pensioner
  • Spouse
  • Homemaker
  • Parent
  1. Social-cognitive career choice model: (Lent, Brown, and Hackett 1994)

Self-efficacy mediate the relationship between ability and interests. A feedback loop is created once a person form career choice goals from self-efficacy and outcome expectations

VAS differs from these two models that it studies the socializing agents.

Found both gender (even though students deny such an effect, but they admit the social effects of others) and culture and Socioeconomic Status affect career choice. Experience (exposure, job shadowing), personal factors (i.e., individual-level variables) also affect career choice (consistent with social-cognitive career).

VAS Messages:

  • Value (e.g., family)
  • Expectation (e.g., self expectation of career)
  • Prescription (e.g., career choice should based on talents, interests,career’s prestige and income potential )
  • Opportunity (e.g., take careers that are under pursued, hence more job opportunities).
  • Description (e.g., t job-specific environments, tasks, satisfaction, and required knowledge)

Check (Myers et al. 2010, 107) for framework of VAS in STEM.

(Smith and Dougherty 2012):

Master narratives should be understood in tandem with personal narratives. (Tannen 2008, 209) defines master narrative as “a culture-wide ideology that shapes the big-N Narrative.” In contrast with small-n where it personal stories and experiences can be found, Big-N Narratives are those that create a background for small-n narratives.

Retirement is a socialization process of the master narrative of aging and the American dream (e.g., success, and freedom - financial, responsibility).


  • Anticipatory group
  • Early work life
  • Preretirement
  • Retiree

Fractures of the master narrative:

  • Freedom/routine fracture: they still want some work (structure), to stay active and productive members of society
  • Individual responsibility/universal expectations fracture: individual is responsible for one’s happiness.

(Ferguson 2017)

(JABLIN 1987) defines socialization as a “developmental unending process which can be broken up into three stages: anticipatory, assimilation, and exit.”

assimilation with others African American. Later on, in college, the author tried closet his identity and desire.

(Gibson and Papa 2000)

Organizational Assimilation Processes: blue-collar usually seen as routine and repetitive, tedious hence less creative, less motivation.

Consent that they need money and later on assimilate into the organizations. Formally, (JABLIN 1987, 712) defines organizational assimilation as “those ongoing behavioral and cognitive processes by which individuals join, become integrated into, and exit organizations.”

Stages of socialization:

  • Anticipatory socialization
  • encounter
  • metamorphosis: accepted into the organization, and consistent with the organization’s expectation. (outgroup \(\to\) ingroup)

Concertive control is “a form of organizational control that emerges in accordance with the dominate ideologies in the organization, usually managerial-based.”

Workers construct hard-working identity and are proud of it.