World transnationalism has historically been developed under patriarchy ideology.
Feminism transnationalism is not homogeneous (i.e., women’s experience worldwide is not the same); we should not treat women as a homogeneous group when considering international policies.
Spatial praxis helps the movement of feminism transnationalism
Should not romanticize resistance of marginalized groups.
Friction defined by Tsing (2005) as when organizational expectations and goal collide with reality of individual identities that show challenges
Identity, Power and Globalization
Universal dreams: prosperity, knowledge, and freedom
“Identity is not about a position in a static structure; it is continually produced and reproduced through interaction”
North = US, Europe
South = third-world
Discursive Frictions: knowledge, language, and identity politics.
The politics of knowledge
- For example, anal sex does not exist in Kenya. Hence, scholars were thought to promote homosexuality.
friction from micro-level and macro-level discursive “sex education” vs. “education on human sexuality”
Reengaging dirty work
Dirty work used to be thought as dirty in physical, social moral manner
Under the lens of African feminist perspective, workers can leverage both positive and negative stigma
An intersectional terrain (gender, class, and nation)
Market work: women tended to be in jobs involved food processing
Civilized Discourse: education, Christianity, domesticity, and good manners.
Empowerment Discourse: because men are killed in war, women gained status.
Women involved in dirty works are proud of their strength, bravery
Aligning with oppositional discourse: strategically negotiate and align with these dynamics.
Creating new meanings: after the war, women gained more status in the society. Women are caring, while distance themselves from civilized people (e.g., uncaring and selfish).
Energy coloniality: “’is constituted by discourse and system that colonizes places and peoples to control different energy forms, ranging from humans to hydrocarbons.”
Energy privilege: studies privilege to uncover and resits the domination of different energy forms.
Emergency manager effect: result of neoliberal and colonial governance and discourses.
Recovering from a "natural’ disaster
“Rebuilding,” not transforming, power systems
Employing “resilience” discourses uncritically
"Experimenting’ with energy projects in Puerto Rico