uses Leader-Member Exchange (LMX) theory
leadership = surplus of interpersonal influence above authority = high LMX
- usually thought of in superior term than LMX (based on quantifiable outcomes)
managership = deficit of interpersonal influence under authority = low LMX
Studied women leadership because of their lack of social power, more likely to share resources, shed light on the other of the patriarchicality of the LMX model.
Values convergence: internalization of common goals, upward influence seen in high LMX relationships.
Non-routine problem solving: members take greater responsibility which leads to more unstructured task management styles.
Insider markers: common ground
Support: make sense because under feminine leadership model, women are good establishing solidarity
Coaching: receive more career counseling and coaching
Choice framing: more space more members to contribution their input.
Role negotiation: high LMX members have more space to negotiate their roles
Performance monitoring: medium and low LMW are more likely to engage in performance monitoring
Face-threatening acts: Low LMX members more likely to engage because of their low satisfaction with their jobs, managers’ behaviors
Competitive conflict: Low LMX are more likely to have conflict
Power games: "arguing just to be arguing
Women leaders are beneficial to organization because of their caregiver role, but they also face status inconsistency by the social power
Control is defined as “interactive and personal rather than as competitive and distant”
Based on symbolic interaction perspective, leadership is “a symbolic, interactive process through which meaning in organizations is created, sustained, and changed.”
- Organization leaders are expected to be consistent with this socially construct norm.
From the perspective of a black feminist, because of their intersection between race, gender, and class, their leadership experiences are unique
Masculine leadership = assertive, feminine leadership = relationship building, empathy and interdependence
Interactive leadership: different from micro-management
Empowerment of employees through the challenge to produce results
Openness in communication: directness
Participative decision making
Leadership through boundary-spanning communication
Social construction of leadership:
Leadership is co-constructed
Leadership is not embedded in leaders, but a construction of interaction between leaders and followers.
Social Construction of Reality vs. Construction of Social Reality: Leadership and management are not used interchangeably.
Attributions, frames, and sense making: attributional theories of leadership
Social interaciton processes
Praxis vs. Theory = Theories-in-use vs. Theory. Leadership and management are used interchangeably.
Multimodal vs. Monomodal = leaderships’ use of language vs. other means (e.g., space, body, clothing, technology).
Pragmatic Interventionist vs. Critical/ Emancipatory: Similar to praxis and theory, but emphasize on the issue of power.
Based on discursive leadership framework, and social constructionist perspectives.
Managers are defined as those who “holds formal authority in an organization to coordinate the here and now of attaining specific organizational goals”
Leaders are those “exerts an influence beyond the mere exercise of authority.”
Discursive leadership emphasizes the focus of leaders as “symbolizing agents.”
Small d (Jamaican leaders) and big D discourse
Postcolonial theory (under critical scholarship)
Mimicry: attempt to assimilate indigenous with colonizers, but indigenous people create their own resistive or transformative culture.
Hybridity: mixture of colonizers’ culture and that of the indigenous.