Why read this book

Can we write a book in one source format, and generate the output to multiple formats? Traditionally books are often written with LaTeX or Microsoft Word. Either of these tools will make writing books a one-way trip and you cannot turn back: if you choose LaTeX, you typically end up only with a PDF document; if you work with Word, you are likely to have to stay in Word forever, and may also miss the many useful features and beautiful PDF output from LaTeX.

Can we focus on writing the content without worrying too much about typesetting? There seems a natural contradiction between content and appearance, and we always have to balance our time spent on these two aspects. No one can have a cake and eat it too, but it does not mean we cannot have a half and eat a half. We want our book to look reasonably pretty, and we also want to focus on the content. One possibility is to give up PDF temporarily, and what you may have in return is a pretty preview of your book as HTML web pages. LaTeX is an excellent typesetting tool, but you can be easily buried in the numerous LaTeX commands and typesetting details while you are working on the book. It is just so hard to refrain from previewing the book in PDF, and unfortunately also so common to find certain words exceed the page margin, certain figures float to a random page, five or six stray words at the very end of a chapter proudly take up a whole new page, and so on. If the book is to be printed, we will have to deal with these issues eventually, but it is not worth being distracted over and over again while you are writing book. The fact that the Markdown syntax is simpler and has fewer features than LaTeX also helps you focus on the content. Do you really have to define a new command like \myprecious{} that applies \textbf{\textit{\textsf{}}} to your text? Does the letter “R” have to be enclosed in \proglang{} when readers can easily figure out it stands for the R language? It does not make much difference whether everything, or nothing, needs the reader’s attention.

Can readers interact with examples in our book as they read it? The answer is certainly no if the book is printed on paper, but it is possible if your book has an HTML version that contains live examples, such as Shiny applications (https://shiny.rstudio.com) or HTML widgets (https://htmlwidgets.org). For example, readers may immediately know what happens if they change certain parameters of a statistical model.

Can we get feedback and even contributions from readers as we develop the book? Traditionally the editor will find a small number of anonymous reviewers to review your book. Reviewers are often helpful, but you may still miss the wisdom of more representative readers. It is too late after the first edition is printed, and readers may need to wait for a few years before the second edition is ready. There are some web platforms that make it easy for people to provide feedback and contribute to your projects. GitHub (https://github.com) is one prominent example. If anyone finds a typo in your book, he/she can simply correct it online and submit the change back to you for your approval. It is a matter of clicking a button to merge the change, with no questions asked or emails back and forth. To be able to use these platforms, you need to learn the basics of version control tools like GIT, and your book source files should be in plain text.

The combination of R (https://www.r-project.org), Markdown, and Pandoc (http://pandoc.org) makes it possible to go from one simple source format (R Markdown) to multiple possible output formats (PDF, HTML, EPUB, and Word, etc.). The bookdown package is based on R Markdown, and provides output formats for books and long-form articles, including the GitBook format, which is a multi-page HTML output format with a useful and beautiful user interface. It is much easier to typeset in HTML than LaTeX, so you can always preview your book in HTML, and work on PDF after the content is mostly done. Live examples can be easily embedded in HTML, which can make the book more attractive and useful. R Markdown is a plain-text format, so you can also enjoy the benefits of version control, such as collaborating on GitHub. We have also tried hard to port some important features from LaTeX to HTML and other output formats, such as figure/table numbering and cross-references.

In short, you just prepare a few R Markdown book chapters, and bookdown can help you turn them into a beautiful book.