# 10 Vectorized Operations

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Many operations in R are vectorized, meaning that operations occur in parallel in certain R objects. This allows you to write code that is efficient, concise, and easier to read than in non-vectorized languages.

The simplest example is when adding two vectors together.

> x <- 1:4
> y <- 6:9
> z <- x + y
> z
  7  9 11 13

Natural, right? Without vectorization, you’d have to do something like

z <- numeric(length(x))
for(i in seq_along(x)) {
z[i] <- x[i] + y[i]
}
z
  7  9 11 13

If you had to do that every time you wanted to add two vectors, your hands would get very tired from all the typing.

Another operation you can do in a vectorized manner is logical comparisons. So suppose you wanted to know which elements of a vector were greater than 2. You could do he following.

> x
 1 2 3 4
> x > 2
 FALSE FALSE  TRUE  TRUE

Here are other vectorized logical operations.

> x >= 2
 FALSE  TRUE  TRUE  TRUE
> x < 3
  TRUE  TRUE FALSE FALSE
> y == 8
 FALSE FALSE  TRUE FALSE

Notice that these logical operations return a logical vector of TRUE and FALSE.

Of course, subtraction, multiplication and division are also vectorized.

> x - y
 -5 -5 -5 -5
> x * y
  6 14 24 36
> x / y
 0.1666667 0.2857143 0.3750000 0.4444444

## 10.1 Vectorized Matrix Operations

Matrix operations are also vectorized, making for nicly compact notation. This way, we can do element-by-element operations on matrices without having to loop over every element.

> x <- matrix(1:4, 2, 2)
> y <- matrix(rep(10, 4), 2, 2)
>
> ## element-wise multiplication
> x * y
[,1] [,2]
[1,]   10   30
[2,]   20   40
>
> ## element-wise division
> x / y
[,1] [,2]
[1,]  0.1  0.3
[2,]  0.2  0.4
>
> ## true matrix multiplication
> x %*% y
[,1] [,2]
[1,]   40   40
[2,]   60   60