# Chapter 3epitools

## 3.1epitable

• Create r x c contigency table for r exposure levels and c outcome levels
epitable(..., ncol =2, byrow = TRUE,
rev = c("neither", "rows", "columns", "both"))
• ... :

1. four or more integers that be converted into r x 2 table (the number of integers must be even), e.g. epitable(88, 20, 555, 347)
1. two categorical vectors (1st vector is exposure with r levels, 2nd vector is outcome with 2 levels), e.g. epitable("Exposure"=exposure, "Disease"=outcome), or epitable(dat$expo, dat$out)
1. r x 2 contingency table, e.g. epitable(matrix(1:6, 3, 2))
1. single vector that be converted into r x 2 table (the number of integers must be even), e.g. epitable(c(88, 20, 555, 347))
• ncol: Default ncol=2, number of columns when a table is constructed from a vector or sequence of numbers

• byrow: Default byrow=TRUE and single vector or collection of numbers is read in row-wise.

• Set to FALSE to read in column-wise.
• e.g. epitable(88, 20, 555, 347), by default 88, 20 would be regarded as the first row (under the same exposure status, Diseased and No disease respectively), and 555, 347 the second under the other exposure status.
• e.g. epitable(88, 20, 555, 347, byrow = FALSE), then 88, 20 would be regarded as the first column (under the same disease status, Exposed and Unexposed respectively), and 555, 347 the second column under the other disease status.
• rev: Default rev="neither" means no order reversal in the process, can be“rows,” “colums” or “both” to reverse the orders.

• Usually the table we get from (2) two categorical vectors would be like:
dat <- read.dta("_data/diet.dta")
epitable(dat$diet, dat$mort)
##          Outcome
## Predictor   0   1
##         0 186 136
##         1 119  59
• In the output table, the outcomes and predictors (exposure) are listed by 0 and then 1; But in the 2 by 2 tables we usually used for further calculation, the top left cell should be Exposed and Disease (Predictor = 1 & Outcome = 1)
Disease + Disease -
Expose +
Expose -
- So rev="both" is added: 
epitable(dat$diet, dat$mort, rev="both")
##          Outcome
## Predictor   1   0
##         1  59 119
##         0 136 186
• The contingency table created by this function is usually used for additional analyses, for example, the epitab function.

## 3.2epitab

• Calculates risks, risk ratio, odds ratio, and confidence intervals for epidemiologic data
epitab(x, y = NULL,
method = c("oddsratio", "riskratio", "rateratio"),
conf.level = 0.95,
rev = c("neither", "rows", "columns", "both"),
oddsratio = c("wald", "fisher", "midp", "small"),
riskratio = c("wald", "boot", "small"),
rateratio = c("wald", "midp"),
pvalue = c("fisher.exact", "midp.exact", "chi2"),
correction = FALSE,
verbose = FALSE)
• Input data:
odds.ratio.or.risk.ratio rate.ratio
x = r x 2 table $\checkmark$ $\checkmark$ (1stcol: disease counts; 2nd col: person time at risk)
x = numeric vectors $\checkmark$ (transformed into r x 2 table in row-wise order) $\checkmark$ (counts followed by person time at risk)
x and y $\checkmark$ (both are single factor or character vectors) $\checkmark$ (x = single numeric vector of counts, y = numeric vector of corresponding person time at risk)
• Other arguments and default values

• measure of association: method = "oddsratio"

• confidence level: conf.level = 0.05

• estimation methods: The default of oddsratio, riskratio and rateratio are "wald"

• pvalue = "fisher.exact"

• correction = FALSE means no Yate’s continuity correction.

• verbose = FALSE, set to TRUE to return more detailed results

• The function epitab requires:

Disease - Disease +
Expose -
Expose +
stat <- epitab(epitable(dat$diet, dat$mort))
stat
## $tab ## Outcome ## Predictor 0 p0 1 p1 oddsratio lower upper p.value ## 0 186 0.6098361 136 0.6974359 1.0000000 NA NA NA ## 1 119 0.3901639 59 0.3025641 0.6780771 0.462563 0.9940021 0.05535248 ## ##$measure
##  "wald"
##
## $conf.level ##  0.95 ## ##$pvalue
##  "fisher.exact"
• Outputs:
stat$tab ## Outcome ## Predictor 0 p0 1 p1 oddsratio lower upper p.value ## 0 186 0.6098361 136 0.6974359 1.0000000 NA NA NA ## 1 119 0.3901639 59 0.3025641 0.6780771 0.462563 0.9940021 0.05535248 • The epidemiologic tabulation generated. stat$measure
 "wald"
• Wald (i.e. Normal approximation) is used to generate the CIs
$statconf.level  0.95 • The confidence level is set to 95% stat$pvalue
 "fisher.exact"
• The Fisher exact test was used to generate the p-value.