Chapter 5 Data Theory

5.1 Introduction

“The plural of anecdote is data.” – Raymond Wolfinger, 1969-70

What is data science without data?

5.2 Understand your data

Randy Au, 2019-02-15, Know your data. Really, really, know it

5.3 Bias

Harini Suresh and John V. Guttag, A Framework for Understanding Unintended Consequences of Machine Learning, arXiv:1901.10002v1 [cs.LG] 28 Jan 2019

Tim Harford (2019-03-08) Black holes in data affect health and wealth, blogpost at

Cathy O’Neil (2016) Weapons of Math Destruction (O’Neil 2016)

Caroline Criado Perez (2019) Invisible Women (Perez 2019)


O’Neil, Cathy. 2016. Weapons of Math Destruction: How Big Data Increases Inequality and Threatens Democracy. Crown.

Perez, Caroline Criado. 2019. Invisible Women: Data Bias in a World Designed for Men. Harry N. Abrams.