Appendix B : Alternative Bootstrap Code

Mosaic Package

library(ggplot2)    # graphing functions
library(dplyr)      # data summary tools
library(mosaic)     # using Mosaic for iterations

# Set default behavior of ggplot2 graphs to be black/white theme
theme_set(theme_bw())

This method uses the mosaic package and can work very well when everything is in data frames.

# read the Lakes data set

# create the Estimated Sampling Distribution of xbar
BootDist <- mosaic::do(10000) *
mosaic::resample(Lakes) %>%
summarise(xbar = mean(AvgMercury))

# what columns does the data frame "BootDist" have?
head(BootDist)
##        xbar
## 1 0.5166038
## 2 0.5516981
## 3 0.5594340
## 4 0.4775472
## 5 0.5035849
## 6 0.4896226
# show a histogram of the estimated sampling distribution of xbar
ggplot(BootDist, aes(x=xbar)) +
geom_histogram() +
ggtitle('Estimated Sampling distribution of xbar' )

# calculate a quantile-based confidence interval
quantile(BootDist$xbar, c(0.025, 0.975)) ## 2.5% 97.5% ## 0.4375425 0.6190613 Base R Code Here, no packages are used and the steps of the bootstrap are more explicit. AvgMerc <- Lakes$AvgMercury
Boot.Its<-10000  ### Numer of iterations, like R in boot
Sample.Size<-length(AvgMerc)
BS.means<-numeric() ### where each estimate is saved
for(j in 1:Boot.Its) BS.means[j]<-mean(sample(AvgMerc, Sample.Size, replace=T))
hist(BS.means)

Then the 95% confidence interval can be found in a similar manner to above.

quantile(BS.means, c(0.025, 0.975))
##      2.5%     97.5%
## 0.4362264 0.6205660