# 6 Selecting and Adapting Research Scales

## 6.1 Introduction to Research Scales

Research scales play a pivotal role in quantitative research, serving as fundamental tools for measuring variables and quantifying responses in a systematic way. In the field of mass communications, where researchers often seek to understand complex phenomena such as media effects, audience perceptions, and communication behaviors, scales provide a means to transform abstract concepts into measurable data. This section introduces the significance of research scales in quantitative studies and offers an overview of the different types of scales commonly employed in mass communications research.

### The Role of Scales in Quantitative Research

In quantitative research, scales are crucial for:

• Measuring Variables: Scales allow researchers to assign numerical values to variables, facilitating the quantification of concepts that are not inherently numerical, such as attitudes, opinions, and preferences.
• Ensuring Precision: By providing a standardized method for measurement, scales help ensure that data collection is precise and consistent across different respondents or time periods.
• Enabling Statistical Analysis: The numerical data generated through scales can be subjected to statistical analysis, making it possible to identify patterns, test hypotheses, and draw conclusions about the research questions being investigated.

### Overview of Different Types of Scales Used in Mass Communications Research

• Nominal Scales: Nominal scales categorize data without implying any order or rank among the categories. For example, a nominal scale might be used to classify respondents by their preferred type of media (e.g., newspapers, television, social media).

• Ordinal Scales: Ordinal scales provide a ranking or ordering of items based on a certain criterion but do not specify the distance between ranks. An example is a scale asking respondents to rank their news sources in order of trustworthiness.

• Interval Scales: Interval scales offer not only a ranking order but also specify the distance between points on the scale, with equal intervals between each point. However, they do not have a true zero point. An example could be a scale measuring attitudes toward a public figure on a scale from -5 (very unfavorable) to +5 (very favorable), where 0 represents a neutral position.

• Ratio Scales: Ratio scales possess all the properties of interval scales, with the addition of a true zero point, allowing for the comparison of absolute magnitudes. An example in mass communications research might involve measuring the amount of time (in hours) respondents spend consuming different types of media per day.

• Likert Scales: Widely used in mass communications research, Likert scales measure the degree of agreement or disagreement with a series of statements, typically ranging from “strongly agree” to “strongly disagree.” This type of scale is particularly useful for assessing attitudes, opinions, and behaviors related to media content and usage.

Understanding and selecting the appropriate scale is critical to the success of a quantitative study in mass communications. The choice of scale influences the granularity and accuracy of the data collected, impacting the study’s overall validity and reliability. By carefully considering the research objectives and the nature of the variables under investigation, researchers can effectively employ scales to illuminate the nuances of communication phenomena.

## 6.2 Understanding Scale Reliability and Validity

In quantitative research, particularly in the field of mass communications, the concepts of reliability and validity are fundamental to ensuring that measurement scales accurately and consistently reflect the variables they are intended to measure. This section defines these crucial concepts and explores their importance, along with detailing various types of reliability and validity that researchers should consider when selecting and adapting research scales.

### Definition and Importance of Reliability and Validity in Research Measurement

• Reliability refers to the consistency of a measurement scale or instrument over time. A reliable scale produces stable and consistent results across multiple observations and applications under the same conditions. High reliability is crucial for ensuring that the measurement of variables is consistent, allowing researchers to be confident in the repeatability of their results.

• Validity pertains to the accuracy of a scale or instrument — whether it measures what it is supposed to measure. Validity is essential for ensuring that the conclusions drawn from research data genuinely reflect the phenomena being studied, thereby contributing to the integrity and credibility of the research findings.

### 6.2.1 Types of Reliability

• Cronbach’s Alpha Reliability: Often used to assess the internal consistency of a scale, especially when the scale contains multiple items. A higher Cronbach’s alpha value (typically above 0.7) indicates a higher level of consistency among the items within the scale.

• Alternate Forms Reliability: Measures the correlation between two equivalent versions of a scale administered to the same group of individuals. High correlation suggests that both forms are reliably measuring the same construct.

• Test-Retest Reliability: Assesses the stability of a scale over time by administering the same scale to the same respondents at two different points in time. A high correlation between the two sets of scores indicates high test-retest reliability.

• Split-Half Reliability: Involves dividing the scale into two equal halves and comparing the results of each half. High correlation between the two halves indicates that the scale is consistently measuring the construct across all items.

### Types of Validity

• Content Validity: Refers to the extent to which a scale comprehensively covers the domain of the construct it intends to measure. It involves ensuring that all aspects of the construct are adequately represented in the scale items.

• Construct Validity: Assesses whether a scale accurately measures the theoretical construct it is intended to measure. This involves demonstrating that the scale is related to other measures as theoretically predicted.

• Criterion Validity: Examines how well a scale correlates with an external criterion that is a known measure of the construct. This type of validity can be divided into concurrent validity, where the scale and criterion are measured at the same time, and predictive validity, where the scale predicts future outcomes or behaviors.

Ensuring the reliability and validity of research scales is a critical step in the research design process. By carefully assessing and establishing these properties, researchers in mass communications can confidently use their chosen scales to generate meaningful, accurate, and reproducible findings that advance our understanding of complex communication phenomena.

## 6.3 Selecting Appropriate Research Scales

Selecting the right research scale is a critical decision in the design of a quantitative study, particularly within the dynamic field of mass communications. The choice of scale can significantly influence the quality and interpretability of your data, affecting the overall validity of your research findings. This section outlines the criteria for selecting scales for research projects, how to assess the fit of a scale with your research objectives and population, and the importance of reviewing existing literature for commonly used scales in mass communications.

### Criteria for Selecting Scales for Research Projects

• Relevance to Research Objectives: The scale must directly measure the constructs or variables central to your research questions. Ensure the scale’s items and dimensions align closely with your study’s specific aims.

• Psychometric Properties: Consider scales with strong psychometric properties, including high reliability (e.g., Cronbach’s alpha) and validity (e.g., content, construct, criterion validity). Reliable and valid scales are more likely to produce accurate and consistent results.

• Sensitivity and Specificity: The scale should be sensitive enough to detect changes or differences within the variables of interest and specific enough to measure the intended constructs without undue influence from unrelated factors.

• Cultural and Contextual Appropriateness: Ensure the scale is appropriate for the cultural and contextual background of your target population. This may involve considering language, norms, and values that could affect respondents’ understanding and responses to the scale items.

### Assessing the Fit of a Scale with Your Research Objectives and Population

• Match with Research Objectives: Scrutinize the scale’s intended purpose and past applications to ensure it measures what you aim to investigate. The constructs defined by the scale should closely match your research objectives.

• Applicability to Target Population: Consider whether the scale has been validated with a population similar to yours in terms of demographics, culture, or media consumption habits. Scales previously used in similar contexts are more likely to be applicable and yield meaningful data.

• Feasibility of Administration: Evaluate whether the scale’s length and complexity are suitable for your mode of data collection and whether it can be completed within a reasonable amount of time by your respondents.

### 6.3.1 Reviewing Existing Literature for Commonly Used Scales in Mass Communications

• Identify Standard Scales: Review academic journals, books, and previous studies in mass communications to identify scales commonly used and validated in your area of interest. Standard scales that have been widely adopted in the field are likely to have well-established reliability and validity.

• Evaluate Adaptations and Modifications: Pay attention to studies that have adapted or modified standard scales. Understanding how and why scales were modified for different contexts or populations can provide valuable insights for selecting or adapting a scale for your own research.

• Consult Scale Databases and Repositories: Utilize online databases and repositories that catalog research scales, including their psychometric properties and previous applications. These resources can be invaluable in finding a scale that fits your research needs.

Selecting an appropriate research scale is a nuanced process that requires careful consideration of your study’s objectives, the characteristics of your target population, and the scale’s established reliability and validity. By meticulously assessing the fit of potential scales and drawing on the wealth of existing literature in mass communications, you can ensure that your research is built on a solid methodological foundation.

## 6.4 Alpha Reliabilities From This Book

Cronbach’s alpha is a fundamental statistic used to evaluate the reliability, or internal consistency, of a research scale, especially pertinent in the field of mass communications research. This section introduces Cronbach’s alpha as a measure of scale reliability, guides on interpreting alpha values, and provides examples of alpha reliabilities for common scales in mass communications, enhancing the understanding of its application and significance.

### Introduction to Cronbach’s Alpha as a Measure of Scale Reliability

• Definition: Cronbach’s alpha is a coefficient that ranges from 0 to 1, measuring how closely related a set of items are as a group. It’s used to assess the reliability of scales composed of multiple items, indicating how well these items measure an underlying construct.

• Significance: A high Cronbach’s alpha value suggests that the scale items have a high degree of internal consistency and are likely measuring the same underlying concept. This is crucial for ensuring that a scale reliably measures the construct of interest across different samples or contexts.

### Interpreting Alpha Values and Their Implications for Research

• Alpha Value Range: Cronbach’s alpha values can be interpreted as follows:
• 0 - 0.69: Indicates poor to low reliability, suggesting the scale may not be adequately measuring a single construct.
• 0.70 - 0.89: Considered acceptable to good reliability, showing that the scale items are consistently measuring the same construct.
• 0.90 - 1.00: Reflects excellent reliability, but a very high alpha (e.g., above 0.95) might also indicate redundancy among items, suggesting some items could be removed without losing scale integrity.
• Implications for Research: The alpha value informs researchers about the scale’s reliability in their study, guiding decisions on whether to use the scale as-is, modify it, or select a different measure. Consistently high alpha values across studies enhance the scale’s credibility for measuring the construct of interest.

### Examples of Alpha Reliabilities for Common Scales in Mass Communications

• Media Use Questionnaire: Designed to measure individuals’ media consumption habits, a commonly used Media Use Questionnaire might report a Cronbach’s alpha of 0.82, indicating good reliability in assessing media usage patterns.

• Attitudes Towards News Media Scale: A scale measuring attitudes towards the credibility and trustworthiness of news media might have an alpha of 0.75, showing acceptable reliability for research exploring perceptions of media integrity.

• Social Media Engagement Scale: This scale, assessing the level of engagement individuals have with social media platforms, could exhibit an alpha of 0.88, suggesting it reliably captures various dimensions of social media interaction.

These examples highlight the application of Cronbach’s alpha in evaluating the reliability of scales widely employed in mass communications research. By ensuring the scales used have demonstrated high internal consistency, researchers can confidently draw on these tools to gather meaningful, reliable data pertinent to understanding complex communication phenomena.

## 6.5 Alternate Forms Reliability

Alternate forms reliability, also known as parallel-forms reliability, is a measure of reliability used to assess the consistency of the results of two tests that are constructed in the same way from the same content domain but use different sets of items. This method is particularly relevant in research where the measurement instrument may be susceptible to practice effects or where the test itself might influence respondents’ answers if given more than once. Understanding and applying alternate forms reliability can significantly enhance the integrity and credibility of quantitative research findings, especially in fields like mass communications.

### Explanation of Alternate Forms Reliability and Its Relevance

• Definition: Alternate forms reliability involves creating two equivalent versions of an instrument (e.g., a survey or test) and administering them to the same group of respondents at different times. The consistency of the results across these two forms indicates the reliability of the instrument.

• Relevance: This form of reliability is crucial for situations where repeated measurements are necessary, but researchers want to minimize the effects that familiarity with the test materials might have on participants’ responses. It ensures that any observed changes or stability in responses are due to the constructs being measured rather than respondents’ recall, practice, or fatigue. In mass communications research, where evolving media landscapes and technologies might influence respondents’ perceptions and behaviors, alternate forms reliability can help in validating scales that measure attitudes, preferences, and consumption habits over time.

### When and How to Use Alternate Forms to Assess Reliability

• When to Use:
• When measuring constructs that may change over short periods due to external influences or internal participant factors.
• In longitudinal studies where the same constructs are measured multiple times.
• When there’s a potential for practice effects, memory recall, or test sensitization to impact the results.
• How to Use:
• Developing Equivalent Forms: Start by creating two versions of the instrument that are as similar as possible in terms of content, difficulty, and format. This may involve using different items that measure the same construct or rearranging the order of items and response options.

• Administration: Administer the two forms to the same group of participants, with sufficient time between administrations to reduce memory effects but close enough to ensure that the construct being measured hasn’t naturally changed.

• Analysis: Analyze the consistency of responses between the two forms using statistical methods, such as correlation coefficients. A high correlation between the scores from the two forms indicates good alternate forms reliability.

• Considerations:
• Ensure that the two forms are genuinely equivalent in measuring the construct.
• Be mindful of the time interval between test administrations to balance reducing memory effects and ensuring the construct stability.

Alternate forms reliability is a powerful method for assessing the reliability of measurement instruments in mass communications research. By carefully creating and administering parallel forms of a scale and analyzing the consistency of responses, researchers can confidently ascertain the reliability of their instruments, thereby bolstering the validity of their research findings.

## 6.6 Common Interval Variable Measures

Interval scales are a critical component in the toolkit of quantitative research, particularly within the domain of mass communications. These scales offer a nuanced approach to measurement, where the distance between each point on the scale is equal, allowing for the meaningful comparison of differences between responses. This section provides an overview of interval scales and their application in mass communications research, along with examples of common interval measures used in the field.

### Overview of Interval Scales and Their Application in Mass Communications Research

• Definition: Interval scales measure variables where not only the order but also the exact differences between the values are meaningful. Unlike ordinal scales, which indicate order without specifying the magnitude of difference between points, interval scales provide a consistent measure of distance between points. However, they lack a true zero point, meaning they cannot measure absolute quantities or ratios.

• Application in Mass Communications: Interval scales are extensively used in mass communications research to quantify attitudes, perceptions, and behaviors with precision. They enable researchers to perform a wide range of statistical analyses, including calculating means and variances, which are crucial for understanding trends and patterns in media consumption, audience preferences, and the impact of media messages.

### Examples of Interval Measures Commonly Used in the Field

• Likert Scales: Perhaps the most familiar use of interval scales in mass communications, Likert scales measure respondents’ levels of agreement or disagreement with a series of statements. This type of scale is invaluable for assessing attitudes toward media content, political viewpoints, or consumer satisfaction with media products.

• Semantic Differential Scales: These scales measure the meaning that people ascribe to media content or concepts by rating them on a continuum between two bipolar adjectives (e.g., “informative” vs. “misleading”). Semantic differential scales are commonly used to analyze media brand perceptions or the emotional impact of media messages.

• Frequency Scales: Used to measure how often respondents engage in specific media-related behaviors (e.g., hours per week spent watching television or times per day checking social media). While not possessing a true zero point, these scales allow for precise comparisons between different frequencies of behavior.

• Differential Media Use Scale: This scale assesses the differential use of various media platforms (e.g., print, online, social media) for information, entertainment, or social interaction. By providing interval measures of usage intensity, researchers can analyze patterns in media consumption and their implications for information dissemination and social influence.

Interval scales offer a powerful method for quantitatively capturing the complexities of media-related attitudes and behaviors. By allowing for precise measurement and statistical analysis, these scales facilitate a deeper understanding of the dynamics at play in mass communications, from audience engagement and content analysis to the evaluation of media effects. Utilizing interval measures, researchers can derive nuanced insights that contribute to the development of media theory and inform practical applications in the industry.

## 6.7 Adapting Existing Scales

In the realm of mass communications research, adapting existing scales to fit specific research needs is a common and often necessary practice. This process allows researchers to leverage the robustness of established scales while ensuring their research is contextually relevant and targeted. Below, we explore the rationale behind adapting existing scales and outline a systematic approach to do so without compromising the scale’s reliability and validity.

### Reasons for Adapting Existing Scales

• Contextual Relevance: Adapting scales can ensure that measurement tools are relevant to specific cultural, societal, or media contexts, which is crucial for accurate data collection and analysis.

• Population Specificity: Tailoring scales to the characteristics or preferences of a particular population can enhance the clarity and relevance of the questions, leading to more reliable and valid responses.

• Research Evolution: As mass communications is a rapidly evolving field, adapting scales can address emerging phenomena, technologies, or trends that were not previously considered.

### Steps for Adapting Scales While Maintaining Reliability and Validity

1. Review the Original Scale’s Development and Validation:
• Begin by thoroughly reviewing the literature on the original scale’s development, including its theoretical foundation, item selection, and validation process. Understanding the scale’s intended use and the constructs it measures is crucial for a successful adaptation.
2. Modify Items for Your Specific Context or Population:
• Contextual Adaptation: Modify items to better align with the cultural or societal context of your study. This might involve altering language, examples, or references to make them more relatable and understandable to your target population.
• Population Adaptation: Tailor items to reflect the characteristics, language, or media consumption habits of your specific population. Ensure that the modifications maintain the original item’s intent.
3. Pilot Test the Adapted Scale:
• Conduct a pilot test with a sample from your target population to assess the clarity, relevance, and appropriateness of the adapted items. Pilot testing is an invaluable step for identifying issues with item interpretation, response patterns, or scale length that could affect the quality of your data.
4. Analyze Pilot Test Data for Reliability and Validity:
• Reliability Analysis: Use statistical measures, such as Cronbach’s alpha, to assess the internal consistency of the adapted scale. This ensures that the scale items are cohesively measuring the same construct.
• Validity Assessment: Evaluate the scale’s validity in the new context or with the new population. This may involve correlational analyses with established measures to assess criterion or construct validity. Adjustments based on pilot test feedback may be necessary to enhance the scale’s reliability and validity.

Adapting existing scales is a nuanced process that requires careful consideration of the original scale’s theoretical underpinnings, the specificities of the new research context or population, and the empirical evaluation of the scale’s performance post-adaptation. By meticulously following these steps, researchers in mass communications can ensure that their adapted scales are both relevant to their specific study and robust in terms of reliability and validity, thereby contributing valuable and accurate insights into the field.

## 6.8 Ensuring Reliability and Validity in Adapted Scales

Adapting research scales for use in new contexts or with different populations is a common practice in mass communications research. However, to ensure the integrity of research findings, it is crucial to rigorously test and confirm the reliability and validity of these adapted scales. This section outlines strategies for achieving this goal and underscores the importance of documenting the adaptation process to enhance transparency and reproducibility.

### Strategies for Testing and Confirming the Reliability and Validity of Adapted Scales

1. Conduct Pilot Testing:
• Before fully implementing an adapted scale in your study, conduct a pilot test with a sample from your target population. This preliminary step allows you to identify any issues with item clarity, response patterns, or scale length that could impact data quality.
2. Assess Reliability:
• Internal Consistency: Use Cronbach’s alpha to evaluate the internal consistency of the adapted scale. This statistic measures how closely related a set of items are as a group, with higher values indicating better reliability.
• Test-Retest Reliability: If feasible, administer the adapted scale to the same participants on two different occasions to assess stability over time.
• Inter-Rater Reliability: For scales that involve subjective judgment or coding, assess the consistency of ratings between different observers or raters.
3. Evaluate Validity:
• Content Validity: Ensure that the scale items comprehensively cover the domain of the construct being measured. Expert reviews or focus groups with members of the target population can provide insights into content validity.
• Construct Validity: Examine the extent to which the adapted scale measures the theoretical construct it is intended to measure. This can involve correlational analyses with other measures known to assess the same construct.
• Criterion Validity: Assess how well the adapted scale correlates with an external criterion considered a gold standard, if available. This can provide evidence that the scale is accurately measuring the intended construct.
4. Statistical Analysis of Pilot Data:
• Analyze the data collected during the pilot test to assess the scale’s psychometric properties. Adjustments to the scale may be necessary based on this analysis to improve its reliability and validity.

### 6.8.1 Importance of Documenting the Adaptation Process

• Transparency: Documenting each step of the adaptation process, from the rationale behind modifications to the outcomes of reliability and validity testing, ensures transparency. This documentation provides clarity on how the adapted scale was developed and validated, allowing others to critically evaluate the quality of the research.

• Reproducibility: Detailed documentation of the adaptation process, including any modifications made to scale items and the methodology used for pilot testing and statistical analysis, facilitates reproducibility. Other researchers can replicate your process to confirm findings or further adapt the scale for their own studies.

• Contribution to the Field: By thoroughly documenting and sharing the adaptation process, you contribute to the body of knowledge in mass communications research. This can aid other researchers in selecting and adapting scales for their own work, promoting the development of robust and contextually relevant measurement tools.

Ensuring the reliability and validity of adapted scales is paramount to the credibility of research findings. Through careful testing, assessment, and documentation, researchers can confidently use adapted scales to generate meaningful insights into the dynamics of mass communications, contributing to the field’s advancement.

## 6.9 Ethical Considerations in Scale Adaptation

Adapting research scales for use in different contexts or with diverse populations is a nuanced process that not only requires methodological rigor but also adherence to ethical principles. Central to these principles are acknowledging the original creators of the scale and ensuring the ethical use of scales, including respect for intellectual property. This section delves into the ethical considerations researchers must keep in mind when adapting scales for their studies, particularly in the field of mass communications.

### Acknowledging the Original Creators of the Scale

• Proper Citation: When using an existing scale, whether adapted or not, it is imperative to cite the original work of the scale’s creators. This acknowledgment should be clear and explicit, detailing the source of the original scale in any publications or presentations that result from the research.

• Respect for Authorship: Beyond citation, researchers should demonstrate respect for the intellectual efforts of the original creators by accurately representing the development and validation work that has been previously conducted. Misrepresenting or failing to acknowledge the foundational work on a scale undermines the integrity of the research and disrespects the contributions of fellow scholars.

### Ethical Use of Scales and Respect for Intellectual Property

• Permission for Adaptation: In some cases, adapting a scale, especially for commercial use or distribution, may require permission from the original authors or the copyright holder. Researchers should review the terms under which the scale was published and, if necessary, obtain permission before proceeding with adaptation.

• Transparency in Modification: Clearly document and disclose any modifications made to the original scale. This includes changes to the wording of items, scale format, or response options. Transparency ensures that other researchers can fully understand the nature of the adapted scale and its comparability to the original.

• Consideration of Cultural and Contextual Sensitivity: When adapting scales for use in different cultural or demographic contexts, researchers must be sensitive to issues of language, cultural norms, and relevance. Adaptations should be made thoughtfully to avoid cultural insensitivity or bias, respecting the diverse populations with whom the scale will be used.

• Sharing Adapted Scales: Ethical practice also involves making adapted scales available to other researchers for further study, validation, or adaptation, provided that such sharing respects the original creators’ rights and intentions. Making adapted scales accessible contributes to the collective knowledge base and facilitates the advancement of research in mass communications.

Ethical considerations in scale adaptation underscore the importance of integrity, respect, and collegiality in the research process. By meticulously acknowledging original creators, respecting intellectual property rights, and being transparent and sensitive in the adaptation process, researchers uphold the highest standards of ethical conduct. This not only enhances the credibility of their own work but also contributes positively to the ongoing development of research methodologies in mass communications.