E.5 Answers to Lecture 5 tutorial

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E.5.1 Answers to Sect. 5.1

Answers embedded.

  1. 70% directly from the table.
  2. \(281/(404 - 281) - 2.28\).
  3. For patients treated with ETI, about 278 die for every 100 that survive.
  4. \(2.78/2.28 = 1.22\).

E.5.2 Answers to Sect. 5.2

  1. \(45\div 240=18.75\)% of all college students in the sample have received one concussion, the same for all student types.
  2. Not sure which is best; they do different things. I’d probably prefer (c).
  3. Odds (non-athlete receiving 2+ concussions) is \(21\div(81-21) = 21\div 60 = 0.35\). Non-athletes are 0.35 times as likely to receive two or more concussions than fewer than two. Or: For every 100 students with fewer than two concussions, there are 35 with two or more.
  4. Odds (soccer player receiving 2+ concussions) is \(13\div(63-13) = 13\div 50 = 0.26\). Soccer players are 0.26 times more likely to receive two or more concussions than fewer than two concussions.
  5. OR: \(0.35 \div 0.26\), or about \(1.35\). The odds of a non-athlete receiving two or more concussions is about 1.35 times the odds of a soccer player receiving two or more concussions (that is, smaller odds for soccer players).
  6. The better table is probably row percentages: The percentages of each type of students with given number of concussions.

E.5.3 Answers to Sect. 5.3

Answers embedded.

  1. Relative frequency.
  2. Relative frequency.
  3. Subjective.
  4. Relative frequency.
  5. Classical.

E.5.4 Answers to Sect. 5.4

Answers implied by H5P.

E.5.5 Answers to Sect. 5.5

Answers embedded.

  1. Odds less than one.
  2. Odds less than one.
  3. Odds greater than one.
  4. Odds greater than one.

E.5.6 Answers to Sect. 5.6

Answers embedded.

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