4.5 Steps of visualizing

  • Healy (2018 Chapter 3.4) summarizes it in the following steps:
  1. data = ... step: Tell the ggplot() function what our data is
  2. mapping = aes(...) step: Tell ggplot() what relationships we want to see
  3. Choose a geom step: Tell ggplot how we want to see the relationships in our data
  4. Layer on geoms as needed, by adding them one at a time
  5. Use The scale_, family, labs() and guides() functions.
  • We can either store plot object and add things (p <- p + ...) or concatenate everything with %>%.


Healy, Kieran. 2018. Data Visualization: A Practical Introduction. Princeton University Press.