3.1 Criteria?

  • “Visualization is surprisingly difficult. Even the most simple matters can easily go wrong” (Cleveland 1994, 12)
  • Central question: Are there general criteria that we can use to evaluate graphs?
  • Critera depend on various aspects, e.g., the audience
    • Q: In how far does the audience differ for graphs we produce for exploration and for presentation?
  • Theory of data graphics (Tufte)
  • Human perception
  • Important: Whatever general principles might be, you and your audience are the final judge!


Cleveland, W S. 1994. “The Elements of Graphing Data.” NJ: Hobart Press.